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22.4 Physical Properties of Acid Derivatives

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  • Physical Properties of Some Carboxylic Acid Derivatives


    IUPAC Name

    Molecular Weight

    Boiling Point

    Water Solubility

    CH3(CH2)2CO2H butanoic acid 88 164 ºC very soluble
    CH3(CH2)2CONH2 butanamide 87 216-220 ºC soluble
    CH3CH2CONHCH3 N-methylpropanamide 87 205 -210 ºC soluble
    CH3CON(CH3)2 N,N-dimethylethanamide 87 166 ºC very soluble
    HCON(CH3)CH2CH3 N-ethyl, N-methylmethanamide 87 170-180 ºC very soluble
    CH3(CH2)3CN pentanenitrile 83 141 ºC slightly soluble
    CH3CO2CHO ethanoic methanoic
    88 105-112 ºC reacts with water
    CH3CH2CO2CH3 methyl propanoate 88 80 ºC slightly soluble
    CH3CO2C2H5 ethyl ethanoate 88 77 ºC moderately soluble
    CH3CH2COCl propanoyl chloride 92.5 80 ºC reacts with water
    CH3(CH2)3CHO pentanal 86 103 ºC slightly soluble
    CH3(CH2)2COCH3 2-pentanone 86 102 ºC slightly soluble

    The last nine entries in the above table cannot function as hydrogen bond donors, so hydrogen bonded dimers and aggregates are not possible. The relatively high boiling points of equivalent 3º-amides and nitriles are probably due to the high polarity of these functions. Indeed, if hydrogen bonding is not present, the boiling points of comparable sized compounds correlate reasonably well with their dipole moments.


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