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Chemistry LibreTexts

11: Solutions- Liquid-Liquid Solutions

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    • 11.1: Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures
      As suggested by the Gibbs Phase Rule, the most important variables describing a mixture are pressure, temperature and composition. In the case of single component systems, composition is not important so only pressure and temperature are typically depicted on a phase diagram. However, for mixtures with two components, the composition is of vital important, so there is generally a choice that must be made as to whether the other variable to be depicted is temperature or pressure.
    • 11.2: Liquid-Vapor Systems - Raoult’s Law
      Liquids tend to be volatile, and as such will enter the vapor phase when the temperature is increased to a high enough value (provided they do not decompose first!) A volatile liquid is one that has an appreciable vapor pressure at the specified temperature. An ideal mixture continuing at least one volatile liquid can be described using Raoult’s Law.
    • 11.3: Non-ideality - Henry's Law and Azeotropes
      The proceeding discussion was based on the behaviors of ideal solutions of volatile compounds, and for which both compounds follow Raoult’s Law. Henry’s Law can be used to describe these deviations.

    Thumbnail: Image used with permission (Esmu Igors [Public domain])

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