# 4.S: Chemical Kinetics (Summary)

These is a summary of key concepts of the chapter in the Textmap created for "Chemistry: The Central Science" by Brown et al.

## 14.1: Factors that Affect Reaction Rates

chemical kinetics – area of chemistry dealing with speeds/rates of reactions

• rates of reactions affected by four factors
1. concentrations of reactants
2. temperature at which reaction occurs
3. presence of a catalyst
4. surface area of solid or liquid reactants and/or catalysts

## 14.2: Reaction Rates

• reaction rate – speed of a chemical reaction

$\displaystyle \textit{average rate} = \frac{\textit{change #moles B}}{\textit{change in time}}= \frac{\Delta\textit{moles B}}{\Delta t}\textit{ if }A \to B$

$\Delta\textit{moles B} = \textit{moles B at final time}- \textit{moles B at initial time}$

$\displaystyle \textit{average rate} = -\frac{\Delta\textit{moles A}}{\Delta t}\textit{ if }A \to B$

14.2.1 Rates in Terms of Concentrations

• rate calculated in units of M/s
• brackets around a substance indicate the concentration
• instantaneous rate – rate at a particular time
• instantaneous rate obtained from the straight line tangent that touches the curve at a specific point
• slopes give instantaneous rates
• instantaneous rate also referred to as the rate

14.2.2 Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry

• for the irreversible reaction $$aA+bB\to cC+dD$$

$\displaystyle\textit{rate} = -\frac{1}{a}\frac{\Delta [A]}{\Delta t} = -\frac{1}{b}\frac{\Delta [B]}{\Delta t} = \frac{1}{c}\frac{\Delta [C]}{\Delta t} = \frac{1}{d}\frac{\Delta [D]}{\Delta t}$

## 14.3: Concentration and Rate

• equation used only if C and D only substances formed
• Rate = k[A][B]
• Rate law – expression that shows that rate depends on concentrations of reactants
• k = rate constant

14.3.1 Reaction Order

• Rate = k[reactant 1]m[reactant 2]n
• m, n are called reaction orders
• m+n, overall reaction order
• reaction orders do not have to correspond with coefficients in balanced equation
• values of reaction order determined experimentally
• reaction order can be fractional or negative

14.3.2 Units of Rates Constants

• units of rate constant depend on overall reaction order of rate law
• for reaction of second order overall
• units of rate = (units of rate constant)(units of concentration)2
• units of rate constant = M-1s-1

14.3.3 Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws

• zero order – no change in rate when concentration changed
• first order – change in concentration gives proportional changes in rate
• second order – change in concentration changes rate by the square of the concentration change, such as 22 or 32, etc…
• rate constant does not depend on concentration

## 14.4: The Change of Concentration with Time

• rate laws can be converted into equations that give concentrations of reactants or products

14.4.1 First-Order Reactions

$\textit{rate} = -\frac{\Delta [A]}{\Delta t} = k[A]$

and in integral form:

$\ln[A]_t - \ln[A]_0 =-kt$

or

$\ln\frac{[A]_t}{[A]_0} = -kt$

$\ln[A]_t = - kt + \ln[A]_0$

• corresponds to a straight line with $$y = mx + b$$
• equations used to determine:
1. concentration of reactant remaining at any time
2. time required for given fraction of sample to react
3. time required for reactant concentration to reach a certain level

14.3.2 Half-Life

• half-life of first order reaction

$\displaystyle t_{\frac{1}{2}} = -\frac{\ln\frac{1}{2}}{k} = \frac{0.693}{k}$

• half-life – time required for concentration of reactant to drop to one-half of initial value
• $$t_{1/2}$$ of first order independent of initial concentrations
• half-life same at any given time of reaction
• in first order reaction – concentrations of reactant decreases by ½ in each series of regularly spaced time intervals

14.3.3 Second-Order Reactions

• rate depends on reactant concentration raised to second power or concentrations of two different reactants each raised to first power

$\text{Rate} = k[A]^2$

$\displaystyle\frac{1}{[A]_t} = kt + \frac{1}{[A]_0}$

$\displaystyle\textit{half life} = t_{\frac{1}{2}} = \frac{1}{k[A]_0}$

• half life dependent on initial concentration of reactant

## 14.5: Temperature and Rate

• rate constant must increase with increasing temperature, thus increasing the rate of reaction

14.5.1 The Collision Model

• collision model – molecules must collide to react
• greater frequency of collisions the greater the reaction rate
• for most reactions only a small fraction of collisions leads to a reaction

14.5.2 Activation Energy

• Svante August Arrhenius
• Molecules must have a minimum amount of energy to react
• Energy comes from kinetic energy of collisions
• Kinetic energy used to break bonds
• Activation energy, Ea – minimum energy required to initiate a chemical reaction
• Activated complex or transition state – atoms at the top of the energy barrier
• Rate depends on temperature and Ea
• Lower Ea means faster reaction
• Reactions occur when collisions between molecules occur with enough energy and proper orientation

14.5.3 The Arrhenius Equation

• reaction rate data:
• theArrhenius Equation:

$\displaystyle k = A e^{\frac{-E_a}{RT}}$

• $$k$$ = rate constant, $$E_a$$ = activation energy, $$R$$ = gas constant (8.314 J/(mol K)), $$T$$ = absolute temperature, $$A$$ = frequency factor
• $$A$$ relates to frequency of collisions, favorable orientations

$\displaystyle \ln k = -\frac{E_a}{RT} + \ln A$

• the $$\ln k$$ vs. $$1/t$$ graph (also known as an Arrhenius plot) has a slope $$–E_a/R$$ and the y-intercept $$\ln A$$
• for two temperatures:

$\displaystyle \ln \frac{k_1}{k_2} = \frac{E_a}{R}\left(\frac{1}{T_2} - \frac{1}{T_1}\right)$

• used to calculate rate constant, $$k_1$$ and $$T_1$$

## 14.6: Reaction Mechanisms

• reaction mechanism – process by which a reaction occurs

14.6.1 Elementary Steps

• elementary steps – each step in a reaction
• molecularity – if only one molecule involved in step
• unimolecular – if only one molecule involved in step
• bimolecular – elementary step involving collision of two reactant molecules
• termolecular – elementary step involving simultaneous collision of three molecules
• elementary steps in multi-step mechanism must always add to give chemical equation of overall process
• intermediate – product formed in one step and consumed in a later step

14.6.2 Rate Laws of Elementary Steps

• if reaction is known to be an elementary step then the rate law is known
• rate of unimolecular step is first order (Rate = k[A])
• rate of bimolecular steps is second order (Rate = k[A][B])
• first order in [A] and [B]
• if double [A] than number of collisions of A and B will double

14.6.3 Rate Laws of Multi-step Mechanisms

• rate-determining step – slowest elementary step
• determines rate law of overall reaction

14.6.4 Mechanisms with an Initial First Step

• intermediates usually unstable, low and unknown concentrations
• whenever a fast step precedes a slow one, solve for concentration of intermediate by assuming that equilibrium is established in fast step

## 14.7: Catalysis

• catalyst – substance that changes speed of chemical reaction without undergoing a permanent chemical change

14.7.1 Homogeneous Catalysis

• homogeneous catalyst – catalyst that is present in same phase as reacting molecule
• catalysts alter Ea or A
• generally catalysts lowers overall Ea for chemical reaction
• catalysts provides a different mechanism for reaction

14.7.2 Heterogeneous Catalysis

• exists in different phase from reactants
• initial step in heterogeneous catalyst is adsorption
• adsorption – binding of molecules to surface
• adsorption occurs because ions/atoms at surface of solid extremely reactive

14.7.3 Enzymes

• biological catalysts
• large protein molecules with molecular weights 10,000 – 1 million amu
• catalase – enzyme in blood and liver that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
• substrates – substances that undergo reaction at the active site
• lock-and-key model – substrate molecules bind specifically to the active site
• enzyme-substrate complex – combination of enzyme and substrate
• binding between enzyme and substrate involves intermolecular forces (dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding, and London dispersion forces)
• product from reaction leaves enzyme allowing for another substrate to enter enzyme
• enzyme inhibitors – molecules that bind strongly to enzymes
• turnover number – number of catalyzed reactions occurring at a particular active site
• large turnover numbers = low activation energies