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Chemistry LibreTexts

1: Thermochemistry

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    • 1.1: The Nature of Energy
    • 1.2: Energy Basics
      Energy is the capacity to do work (applying a force to move matter). Heat is energy that is transferred between objects at different temperatures; it flows from a high to a low temperature. Chemical and physical processes can absorb heat (endothermic) or release heat (exothermic). The SI unit of energy, heat, and work is the joule (J). Specific heat and heat capacity are measures of the energy needed to change the temperature of a substance or object.
    • 1.3: Calorimetry
      Calorimetry is used to measure the amount of thermal energy transferred in a chemical or physical process. This requires careful measurement of the temperature change that occurs during the process and the masses of the system and surroundings. These measured quantities are then used to compute the amount of heat produced or consumed in the process using known mathematical relations. Calorimeters are designed to minimize energy exchange between the system and its surroundings.
    • 1.4: Enthalpy
      If a chemical change is carried out at constant pressure and the only work done is caused by expansion or contraction, q for the change is called the enthalpy change with the symbol ΔH. Examples of enthalpy changes include enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization, and standard enthalpy of formation.   If the enthalpies of formation are available for the reactants and products of a reaction, the enthalpy change can be calculated using Hess’s law.
    • 1.5: Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
    • 1.6: Bond Energies
      The bond energy is a measure of the amount of energy needed to break apart one mole of covalently bonded gases.  Energy is released to generate bonds, which is why the enthalpy change for breaking bonds is positive. Energy is required to break bonds. Atoms are much happier when they are "married" and release energy because it is easier and more stable to be in a relationship (e.g., to generate octet electronic configurations).

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