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6: States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces

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    • 6.1: Overview of States of Matter
      A phase is a form of matter that has the same physical properties throughout. Molecules interact with each other through various forces: ionic and covalent bonds, dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion forces.
    • 6.2: Intermolecular forces
    • 6.3: Vapor Pressure
    • 6.4: Solubility
      The extent to which one substance will dissolve in another is determined by several factors, including the types and relative strengths of intermolecular attractive forces that may exist between the substances’ atoms, ions, or molecules. This tendency to dissolve is quantified as substance’s solubility, its maximum concentration in a solution at equilibrium under specified conditions. A saturated solution contains solute at a concentration equal to its solubility.
    • 6.5: Unique Properties of Liquids
    • 6.6: Crystalline and Amorphous Solids
    • 6.7: The Solid State of Matter
      Some substances form crystalline solids consisting of particles in a very organized structure; others form amorphous (noncrystalline) solids with an internal structure that is not ordered. The main types of crystalline solids are ionic solids, metallic solids, covalent network solids, and molecular solids. The properties of the different kinds of crystalline solids are due to the types of particles of which they consist, the arrangements of the particles, and the strengths of the attractions bet
    • 6.8: Gaseous Elements and Compounds
    • 6.9: Gas Pressure
    • 6.10: The Ideal Gas Law
    • 6.11: Gas Mixtures
    • 6.12: Kinetic Theory of Gases
      The physical behavior of gases is explained by the kinetic theory of gases. An ideal gas adheres exactly to the kinetic theory of gases.
    • 6.13: Real Gases
    • 6.14: Overview of Chromatography
      The first uses of chromatography involved separating the colored components of plants in the early 1900's. The pigments in a plant can be separated into yellow, orange, and green colors (xanthophylls, carotenes and chlorophylls respectively) through this method. The Greek name for color is chroma, and graphein is 'to write,' so chromatography can be thought of as "color writing."
    • 6.15: General Separation Theory
      In all chromatographic methods, a sample is first applied onto a stationary material that either absorbs or adsorbs the sample: adsorption is when molecules or ions in a sample adhere to a surface, while absorption is when the sample particles penetrate into the interior of another material.

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