# 13: Solutions

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• 13.1: Thirsty Solutions- Why You Should Not Drink Seawater
• 13.2: Types of Solutions and Solubility
Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances whose components are uniformly distributed on a microscopic scale. The component present in the greatest amount is the solvent, and the components present in lesser amounts are the solute(s). The formation of a solution from a solute and a solvent is a physical process, not a chemical one. Substances that are miscible, such as gases, form a single phase in all proportions when mixed. Substances that form separate phases are immiscible.
• 13.3: Energetics of Solution Formation
• 13.4: Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility
The solubility of most substances depends strongly on the temperature and, in the case of gases, on the pressure. The solubility of most solid or liquid solutes increases with increasing temperature. The components of a mixture can often be separated using fractional crystallization, which separates compounds according to their solubilities. The solubility of a gas decreases with increasing temperature. Henry’s law describes the relationship between the pressure and the solubility of a gas.
• 13.5: Expressing Solution Concentration
Different units are used to express the concentrations of a solution depending on the application. The concentration of a solution is the quantity of solute in a given quantity of solution. It can be expressed in several ways.
• 13.6: Colligative Properties- Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point Elevation, and Osmosis
Colligative properties of a solution depend on only the total number of dissolved particles in solution, not on their chemical identity. Colligative properties include vapor pressure, boiling point, freezing point, and osmotic pressure. The addition of a nonvolatile solute (one without a measurable vapor pressure) decreases the vapor pressure of the solvent. The vapor pressure of the solution is proportional to the mole fraction of solvent in the solution, a relationship known as Raoult’s law.
• 13.7: The Colligative Properties of Strong Electrolyte Solutions
Ion-pair formation, the incomplete dissociation of molecular solutes, the formation of complex ions, and changes in pH all affect solubility. There are four explanations why the solubility of a compound can differ from the solubility indicated by the concentrations of ions: (1) ion pair formation, in which an anion and a cation are in intimate contact in solution and not separated by solvent, (2) the incomplete dissociation of molecular solutes, (3) the formation of complex ions, and (4) changes
• 13.8: Colloids
A colloid can be classified as a sol, a dispersion of solid particles in a liquid or solid; a gel, a semisolid sol in which all of the liquid phase has been absorbed by the solid particles; an aerosol, a dispersion of solid or liquid particles in a gas; or an emulsion, a dispersion of one liquid phase in another. A colloid can be distinguished from a true solution by its ability to scatter a beam of light, known as the Tyndall effect.
• 13.E: Solutions (Exercises)

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