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3.5.1: Electronegativity and Polarity (Problems)

  • Page ID
    235761
  • PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict which of the following compounds are ionic and which are covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table:

    a. Cl2CO
    b. MnO
    c. NCl3
    d. CoBr2
    e. K2S
    f. CO
    g. CaF2
    h. HI
    i. CaO
    j. IBr
    k. CO2

    Answer a

    covalent

    Answer b

    ionic

    Answer c

    covalent

    Answer d

    ionic

    Answer e

    ionic

    Answer f

    covalent

    Answer g

    ionic

    Answer h

    covalent

    Answer i

    ionic

    Answer j

    covalent

    Answer k

    covalent

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    Explain the difference between a nonpolar covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond.

    Answer

    nonpolar covalent: electronegativity difference is less than 0.4 (nonmetal+nonmetal close together on the periodic table)

    polar covalent: electronegativity difference in between 0.4 and 2.0 (nonmetal + nonmental further apart on the periodic table)

    ionic: electronegativity difference is above 2.0 (metal + nonmetal)

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{3}\)

    From its position in the periodic table, determine which atom in each pair is more electronegative:

    a. Br or Cl
    b. N or O
    c. S or O
    d. P or S
    e. Si or N
    f. Ba or P
    g. N or K

    Answer a

    Cl

    Answer b

    O

    Answer c

    O

    Answer d

    S

    Answer e

    N

    Answer f

    P

    Answer g

    N

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{4}\)

    From its position in the periodic table, determine which atom in each pair is more electronegative:

    a. N or P
    b. N or Ge
    c. S or F
    d. Cl or S
    e. H or C
    f. Se or P
    g. C or Si

    Answer a

    N

    Answer b

    N

    Answer c

    F

    Answer d

    Cl

    Answer e

    C

    Answer f

    P

    Answer g

    C

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    From their positions in the periodic table, arrange the atoms in each of the following series in order of increasing electronegativity:

    a. C, F, H, N, O
    b. Br, Cl, F, H, I
    c. F, H, O, P, S
    d. Al, H, Na, O, P
    e. Ba, H, N, O, As

    Answer a

    H, C, N, O, F

    Answer b

    H, I, Br, Cl, F

    Answer c

    H, P, S, O, F

    Answer d

    Na, Al, H, P, O

    Answer e

    Ba, H, As, N, O

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{6}\)

    Which is the most polar bond?

    C–C; C–H; N–H; O–H; Se–H

    Answer

    O–H

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{7}\)

    Identify the more polar bond in each of the following pairs of bonds:

    a. HF or HCl
    b. NO or CO
    c. SH or OH
    d. PCl or SCl
    e. CH or NH
    f. SO or PO
    g. CN or NN

    Answer a

    HF

    Answer b

    CO

    Answer c

    OH

    Answer d

    PCl

    Answer e

    NH

    Answer f

    PO

    Answer g

    CN

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{8}\)

    Which of the following molecules or ions contain polar bonds?

    a. O3
    b. \(\ce{O2^2-}\)

    c. \(\ce{NO3-}\)

    d. CO2
    e. H2S
    f. \(\ce{BH4-}\)

    g. S8

    Answer

    c, d, e, f

     

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