Skip to main content
Chemistry LibreTexts

19.12: Solutions to Additional Exercises

  • Page ID
    183119
  • General Review

    21-1

    v6SH7dBh6bmUtGmGgFCmQuv-f0865zs2lUzBZSEd6vyO7quESzowCtZBieqamku28iuYG-uI0TNbFq4CZyKOg07O9Nd4GCc-jaFE50vfengLidvEqOkQ-5He5oyDos2KY6A9OQJy

    21-2 1-[4-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl]ethan-1-one

    Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids

    21-3:

    Yzjvj9gSGwaxWJGRipPtnlqJJEK0xDhxNPjl43dDseKu1DWK7vX3iBObQD9yg1Weha_wRH8b6nJkdgdKPmArD4MZrsWDE-5ErUWit7oAnCxuYODRJu4as8KKzzGciGOtT3MSbgvH

    21-4:

    Possible route of synthesis:

    vyMTtcYuWY4MgNYx38-PZryJwSo7Nr_yUFGFgknZsz413KSuOvXTPxtfHQfdJ1Gn4t6KGoSt22Yxle-o0eBJa1GqInlgAbyYLSghjiArUbpsSCTByexy3LaNMtgkaSKvET4JxQtv

    21-5:

    Answer: C

    nQB_4ZlpvMsK1qXRWKlzFrqK4aqwE-6idc4KUdT7wfUa-psmZ9grD-i9LLfBm5JH8fkppTyi0uZGRMHFVyFfVcbgL9P92rL4jYEzx3jWBQWI0zjpab5KhDdd5N5AubmwAtWFBh6a

    (E or Z orientation allowed)

    Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution

    21-6:

    W7Lw2qRrMKuraeMrQ8x2ceUzP6AVtwMh9oHs1L1e2KQ8itEmFVmfKA41ohBk6OIeT09oX0Est9FqsyaFn8mvgXx7_K2DQrXetmJ5ZGzlfz-391Sz1BX1MhnDFpzHuVbwM8TB5qJV

    21-7:

    I5tGItbF3ne60LVGJUG7MtOiDThWFXNT-0KVOjIBj31DziElCYS3n3qUM1N8F1larXnau0ZLPP6CZhy5wlBoVyrNgefTUxXEkB3EzKW-3G_DNCz8jp5_8z9LHGEkHNlv2VkzmTin

    21-8:

    Answer: B

    Condensation of Acids with Alcohols: the Fischer Esterification

    21-9:

    UtmOFNzGd0PEyIL2POI35lMoC-vz7ypFjBgZf7a3Huc7_LIlKSm0U8VFVPI4cYpTtU_e3U5UU7_gaieE1cPssDBB9flaaEnQonO46iqzWM9pp9cDoteg7lwt2ERMmcBetEZHslvM

    21-10:

    Answer: D

    21-11:

    MfVWVwLJ1SdimxFQ6WJJMTpyFSMyzl-JYh1cT9_3TG94qyD9-jX6iGnE4THeCeuYrkvmOJnmsNrV6RqdOn0nqsI714kzwDOjoGiA3RvdvctCJnluBNtQhdbeYlJdOQfX1uhq_Krk

    Condensation of Acids with Amines: Direct Synthesis of Amides

    21-12:

    oKhYKMRo2M8RTckfCTXk7RnfkkMnzOU5Ug-SKc_PMzCnpl_8oYEavSNvoTFFnU6nifZTAh8xDFfAtPcUEsdrt_QF4wLFRJDp2vBy6DRi9qUvxTDM-d-0orcwq3Tx3WerQuvK21yT

    21-13:

    Answer: C

    JfDiSm7T1i-wPtr4OSxpOUcOLK6KXE9yyE9JMbC9-rNlBI9RauD4rnhqimKMou7HTF-R0gy3RRC7h40AVtSrV8DfhTrrYPXSSUpX0V-rMCF3xDgZlQDh8JUpISnLcSvoVb6flfio

    21-14:

    2Gm-WgZRrko7Ouiu2doDKr1JweB76rQyiJMLuwi57DA031F3U1uZbBOmOuWGoA37QfjHJo1vqG58mrtK9uGGDxktQrbu2WnecYUMnmvxauxMTaldXHXsvVhem0kTYGQ6k8tDzyB3

    Alkylation of Carboxylic Acids to Form Ketones

    21-15:

    eOA2n6ZuTHZrI4KcwzmvHyXSenQBqDa3rq0i-lmZ6pF8U23i1u4DVsY1gnUQE2A17IokRHqhcqOfZnLzYSzCWUwhdGHizs5FIQ8zcJFhMxGNIh9BPzFL7B9LLs_U3JhjpBYQ301E

    21-16:

    Two equivalents of the organolithium reagent is necessary for the alkylation of carboxylic acids because one equivalent is used to form a salt with the carboxylic acid and the other equivalent is the nucleophile that adds to the carbonyl carbon.

    cxRYHPAvqnRpBpvD6WesaTlQyU2CRSZXLeEF-jPshSC67j9mAazOWjA9iQ58H7vEuacjL4Wjlw0JX9nSpA_JUkhzJMh6MJUSlvc6zrNoM9F07SSwDtKe5nHGribXrPwDgRiWed0n An example of the intermediate from problem 20-1.

    21-17:

    nMEtloAT8GswdERXarl5DVOs4zMzhZULwtQdSKaYo953eyb98Us39uPopRL-XD89e-9Nhjj8Vtuby9zW4AznFRoxURsV6jFngJSe4XavLfcbOrW_-GfcUu4K0aHOQwxDuR39pzQX