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9: Solutions and Aqueous Mixtures

  • Page ID
    393917
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    • 9.1: Mixtures
      Mixtures are combinations of two or more pure substances. In this section, we will look at how we classify different mixtures.
    • 9.2: Solutions - Homogeneous Mixtures
      There are two types of mixtures: mixtures in which the substances are evenly mixed together (called a homogenous mixture, or solution) and a mixture in which the substances are not evenly mixed (called a heterogeneous mixture). When a solution, or homogenous mixture, is said to have uniform properties throughout, the definition is referring to properties at the particle level.
    • 9.3: Solutions of Gases in Water
      Several factors affect the solubility of a given substance in a given solvent. Temperature is one such factor, with gas solubility typically decreasing as temperature increases. This is one of the major impacts resulting from the thermal pollution of natural bodies of water.
    • 9.4: Aqueous Solutions - Dissolving solids in water
      A solution is a homogenous mixture consisting of a solute dissolved into a solvent. The solute is the substance that is being dissolved, while the solvent is the dissolving medium. Solutions can be formed with many different types and forms of solutes and solvents. In this chapter, we will focus on solution where the solvent is water. An aqueous solution is water that contains one or more dissolved substance. The dissolved substances in an aqueous solution may be solids, gases, or other liquids.
    • 9.5: Solution Concentration
      To define a solution precisely, we need to state its concentration: how much solute is dissolved in a certain amount of solvent. Words such as "dilute" or "concentrated" are used to describe solutions that have a little or a lot of dissolved solute, respectively.  However "dilute" and "concentrated" are relative terms, and have meanings dependent on various factors. The mass/mass percent (% m/m) is defined as the mass of a solute divided by the mass of a solution times 100.
    • 9.6: Solution Concentration- Molarity
      Another way of expressing concentration is to give the number of moles of solute per unit volume of solution. Of all the quantitative measures of concentration, molarity is the one used most frequently by chemists. Molarity is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. The symbol for molarity is MM or moles/liter. Chemists also use square brackets to indicate a reference to the molarity of a substance.
    • 9.7: Solution Dilution
      We are often concerned with how much solute is dissolved in a given amount of solution. We will begin our discussion of solution concentration with two related and relative terms—dilute and concentrated.
    • 9.8: Properties of Solutions
      Some properties of solutions depend only on the concentration of the solute. These properties are called colligative properties. The colligative properties we will look at in this section are boiling point, freezing point, and vapor pressure.
    • 9.9: Osmosis
      Osmotic pressure is caused by concentration differences between solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane and is an important biological issue.


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