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5.E: Chemical Reactions (Exercises)

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    The following questions are related to the material covered in this chapter. For additional discussion on each topic, also check the links included in each heading.

    5.1-5.3: The Chemical Equation

    1. From the statement “nitrogen and hydrogen react to produce ammonia,” identify the reactants and the products.
    2. From the statement “sodium metal reacts with water to produce sodium hydroxide and hydrogen,” identify the reactants and the products.
    3. From the statement “magnesium hydroxide reacts with nitric acid to produce magnesium nitrate and water,” identify the reactants and the products.
    4. From the statement “propane reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water,” identify the reactants and the products.
    5. Write and balance the chemical equation described by Exercise 1.
    6. Write and balance the chemical equation described by Exercise 2.
    7. Write and balance the chemical equation described by Exercise 3.
    8. Write and balance the chemical equation described by Exercise 4. The formula for propane is C3H8.
    9. Balance: ___NaClO3 → ___NaCl + ___O2
    10. Balance: ___N2 + ___H2 → ___N2H4
    11. Balance: ___Al + ___O2 → ___Al2O3
    12. Balance: ___C2H4 + ___O2 → ___CO2 + ___H2O
    13. How would you write the balanced chemical equation in Exercise 10 if all substances were gases?
    1. How would you write the balanced chemical equation in Exercise 12 if all the substances except water were gases and water itself were a liquid?

    Answers

    1. reactants: nitrogen and hydrogen; product: ammonia
    2. reactants: magnesium hydroxide and nitric acid; products: magnesium nitrate and water

    3. N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

    4. Mg(OH)2 + 2HNO3 → Mg(NO3)2 + 2H2O

    5. 2NaClO3 → 2NaCl + 3O2

    6. 4Al + 3O2 → 2Al2O3

    7. N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g)

    5.4: Composition, Decomposition, and Combustion Reactions

    1. Which is a composition reaction and which is not?
      1. NaCl + AgNO3 → AgCl + NaNO3
      2. CaO + CO2 → CaCO3
    2. Which is a composition reaction and which is not?
      1. H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl
      2. 2HBr + Cl2 → 2HCl + Br2
    3. Which is a composition reaction and which is not?
      1. 2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3
      2. 6C + 3H2 → C6H6
    4. Which is a composition reaction and which is not?
      1. 4Na + 2C + 3O2 → 2Na2CO3
      2. Na2CO3 → Na2O + CO2
    5. Which is a decomposition reaction and which is not?
      1. HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
      2. CaCO3 → CaO + CO2
    6. Which is a decomposition reaction and which is not?
      1. 3O2 → 2O3
      2. 2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2
    7. Which is a decomposition reaction and which is not?
      1. Na2O + CO2 → Na2CO3
      2. H2SO3 → H2O + SO2
    8. Which is a decomposition reaction and which is not?
      1. 2C7H5N3O6 → 3N2 + 5H2O + 7CO + 7C
      2. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
    9. Which is a combustion reaction and which is not?
      1. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
      2. 2Fe2S3 + 9O2 → 2Fe2O3 + 6SO2
    10. Which is a combustion reaction and which is not?
      1. CH4 + 2F2 → CF4 + 2H2
      2. 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O
    11. Which is a combustion reaction and which is not?
      1. P4 + 5O2 → 2P2O5
      2. 2Al2S3 + 9O2 → 2Al2O3 + 6SO2
    12. Which is a combustion reaction and which is not?
      1. C2H4 + O2 → C2H4O2
      2. C2H4 + Cl2 → C2H4Cl2
    13. Is it possible for a composition reaction to also be a combustion reaction? Give an example to support your case.
    14. Is it possible for a decomposition reaction to also be a combustion reaction? Give an example to support your case.
    15. Complete and balance each combustion equation.
      1. C4H9OH + O2 → ?
      2. CH3NO2 + O2 → ?
    16. Complete and balance each combustion equation.
      1. B2H6 + O2 → ? (The oxide of boron formed is B2O3.)
      2. Al2S3 + O2 → ? (The oxide of sulfur formed is SO2.)
      3. Al2S3 + O2 → ? (The oxide of sulfur formed is SO3.)

    Answers

      1. not composition
      2. composition
      1. composition
      2. composition
      1. not decomposition
      2. decomposition
      1. not decomposition
      2. decomposition
      1. combustion
      2. combustion
      1. combustion
      2. combustion
    1. Yes; 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O (answers will vary)
      1. C4H9OH + 6O2 → 4CO2 + 5H2O
      2. 4CH3NO2 + 3O2 → 4CO2 + 6H2O + 2N2

    5.5: Types of Chemical Reactions - Single and Double Displacement Reactions

    1. What are the general characteristics that help you recognize single-replacement reactions?
    2. What are the general characteristics that help you recognize double-replacement reactions?
    3. Assuming that each single-replacement reaction occurs, predict the products and write each balanced chemical equation.
      1. Zn + Fe(NO3)2 → ?
      2. F2 + FeI3 → ?
    4. Assuming that each single-replacement reaction occurs, predict the products and write each balanced chemical equation.
      1. Li + MgSO4 → ?
      2. NaBr + Cl2 → ?
    5. Assuming that each single-replacement reaction occurs, predict the products and write each balanced chemical equation.
      1. Sn + H2SO4 → ?
      2. Al + NiBr2 → ?
    6. Assuming that each single-replacement reaction occurs, predict the products and write each balanced chemical equation.
      1. Mg + HCl → ?
      2. HI + Br2 → ?
    7. Use the periodic table or the activity series to predict if each single-replacement reaction will occur and, if so, write a balanced chemical equation.
      1. FeCl2 + Br2 → ?
      2. Fe(NO3)3 + Al → ?
    8. Use the periodic table or the activity series to predict if each single-replacement reaction will occur and, if so, write a balanced chemical equation.
      1. Zn + Fe3(PO4)2 → ?
      2. Ag + HNO3 → ?
    9. Use the periodic table or the activity series to predict if each single-replacement reaction will occur and, if so, write a balanced chemical equation.
      1. NaI + Cl2 → ?
      2. AgCl + Au → ?
    10. Use the periodic table or the activity series to predict if each single-replacement reaction will occur and, if so, write a balanced chemical equation.
      1. Pt + H3PO4 → ?
      2. Li + H2O → ? (Hint: treat H2O as if it were composed of H+ and OH ions.)
    11. Assuming that each double-replacement reaction occurs, predict the products and write each balanced chemical equation.
      1. Zn(NO3)2 + NaOH → ?
      2. HCl + Na2S → ?
    12. Assuming that each double-replacement reaction occurs, predict the products and write each balanced chemical equation.
      1. Ca(C2H3O2)2 + HNO3 → ?
      2. Na2CO3 + Sr(NO2)2 → ?
    13. Assuming that each double-replacement reaction occurs, predict the products and write each balanced chemical equation.
      1. Pb(NO3)2 + KBr → ?
      2. K2O + MgCO3 → ?
    14. Assuming that each double-replacement reaction occurs, predict the products and write each balanced chemical equation.
      1. Sn(OH)2 + FeBr3 → ?
      2. CsNO3 + KCl → ?
    15. Use the solubility rules to predict if each double-replacement reaction will occur and, if so, write a balanced chemical equation.
      1. Pb(NO3)2 + KBr → ?
      2. K2O + Na2CO3 → ?
    16. Use the solubility rules to predict if each double-replacement reaction will occur and, if so, write a balanced chemical equation.
      1. Na2CO3 + Sr(NO2)2 → ?
      2. (NH4)2SO4 + Ba(NO3)2 → ?
    17. Use the solubility rules to predict if each double-replacement reaction will occur and, if so, write a balanced chemical equation.
      1. K3PO4 + SrCl2 → ?
      2. NaOH + MgCl2 → ?
    18. Use the solubility rules to predict if each double-replacement reaction will occur and, if so, write a balanced chemical equation.
      1. KC2H3O2 + Li2CO3 → ?
      2. KOH + AgNO3 → ?

    Answers

    1. One element replaces another element in a compound.
      1. Zn + Fe(NO3)2 → Zn(NO3)2 + Fe
      2. 3F2 + 2FeI3 → 3I2 + 2FeF3
      1. Sn + H2SO4 → SnSO4 + H2
      2. 2Al + 3NiBr2 → 2AlBr3 + 3Ni
      1. No reaction occurs.
      2. Fe(NO3)3 + Al → Al(NO3)3 + Fe
      1. 2NaI + Cl2 → 2NaCl + I2
      2. No reaction occurs.
      1. Zn(NO3)2 + 2NaOH → Zn(OH)2 + 2NaNO3
      2. 2HCl + Na2S → 2NaCl + H2S
      1. Pb(NO3)2 + 2KBr → PbBr2 + 2KNO3
      2. K2O + MgCO3 → K2CO3 + MgO
      1. Pb(NO3)2 + 2KBr → PbBr2(s) + 2KNO3
      2. No reaction occurs.
      1. 2K3PO4 + 3SrCl2 → Sr3(PO4)2(s) + 6KCl
      2. 2NaOH + MgCl2 → 2NaCl + Mg(OH)2(s)

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