# 13: Concentration of Solutions

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• 13.1: Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures
There are two types of mixtures: mixtures in which the substances are evenly mixed together (called a solution) and a mixture in which the substances are not evenly mixed (called a heterogeneous mixture). A solution is an even (or homogeneous) mixture of substances. A point should be made here that when a solution is said to have uniform properties throughout, the definition is referring to properties at the particle level.
• 13.2: Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy
solutions can be formed in a variety of combinations using solids, liquids, and gases. We also know that solutions have constant composition and we can also vary this composition up to a point to maintain the homogeneous nature of the solution. The reasons why solutions will form will be explored in this section, along with a discussion of why water is used most frequently to dissolve substances of various types.
• 13.3: Solutions of Gases in Water
Other factors also affect the solubility of a given substance in a given solvent. Temperature is one such factor, with gas solubility typically decreasing as temperature increases. This is one of the major impacts resulting from the thermal pollution of natural bodies of water.
• 13.4: Solution Concentration: Mass Percent
To define a solution precisely, we need to state its concentration: how much solute is dissolved in a certain amount of solvent. Words such as dilute or concentrated are used to describe solutions that have a little or a lot of dissolved solute, respectively, but these are relative terms whose meanings depend on various factors. The mass/mass percent (% m/m) is defined as the mass of a solute divided by the mass of a solution times 100:
• 13.5: Solution Dilution
We are often concerned with how much solute is dissolved in a given amount of solution. We will begin our discussion of solution concentration with two related and relative terms - dilute and concentrated.
• 13.6: Solution Dilution
We are often concerned with how much solute is dissolved in a given amount of solution. We will begin our discussion of solution concentration with two related and relative terms - dilute and concentrated.
• 13.7: Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water
When ionic compounds dissolve in water, the ions in the solid separate and disperse uniformly throughout the solution because water molecules surround and solvate the ions, reducing the strong electrostatic forces between them. This process represents a physical change known as dissociation. Under most conditions, ionic compounds will dissociate nearly completely when dissolved, and so they are classified as strong electrolytes.
• 13.8: Ionic Equations - A Closer Look
Ionic compounds that dissolve separate into individual ions. Complete ionic equations show dissolved ionic solids as separated ions. Net ionic equations show only the ions and other substances that change in a chemical reaction.

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