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12: Gases

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    • 12.1: Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases
      The physical behavior of gases is explained by the kinetic theory of gases. An ideal gas adheres exactly to the kinetic theory of gases.
    • 12.2: Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions
      Pressure is a force exerted over an area. Pressure has several common units that can be converted.
    • 12.3: Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume
      Boyle’s law relates a gas’s pressure and volume at constant temperature and amount.
    • 12.4: Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature
      Charles’s law relates a gas’s volume and temperature at constant pressure and amount. In gas laws, temperatures must always be expressed in kelvins.
    • 12.5: Gay-Lussac's Law: Temperature and Pressure
      Gay-Lussac's Law states that the pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the absolute temperature of the gas, when the volume is kept constant. Gay-Lussac's Law is very similar to Charles's Law, with the only difference being the type of container. Whereas the container in a Charles's Law experiment is flexible, it is rigid in a Gay-Lussac's Law experiment.
    • 12.6: Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Moles
      The original statement of Avogadro’s law states that equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles of gas. Because the number of particles is related to the number of moles, Avogadro’s law essentially states that equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same amount (moles, particles) of gas.
    • 12.7: The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
      There are other gas laws that relate any two physical properties of a gas. The combined gas law relates pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas.
    • 12.8: Mixtures of Gases: Why Deep-Sea Divers Breathe a Mixture of Helium and Oxygen
      The pressure of a gas in a gas mixture is termed the partial pressure. Dalton’s law of partial pressure says that the total pressure in a gas mixture is the sum of the individual partial pressures. Collecting gases over water requires that we take the vapor pressure of water into account. Mole fraction is another way to express the amounts of components in a mixture.

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