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4: Ions

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    • 4.1: Ions - Losing and Gaining Electrons
      Atom may lose valence electrons quite to obtain a lower shell that contains an octet. Atoms that lose electrons acquire a positive charge as a result because they are left with fewer negatively charged electrons to balance the positive charges of the protons in the nucleus. Positively charged ions are called cations. Most metals become cations when they make ionic compounds.
    • 4.2: The Bohr Model - Atoms with Orbits
      Bohr's model suggests each atom has a set of unchangeable energy levels and electrons in the electron cloud of that atom must be in one of those energy levels. Bohr's model suggests that the atomic spectra of atoms is produced by electrons gaining energy from some source, jumping up to a higher energy level, then immediately dropping back to a lower energy level and emitting the energy different between the two energy levels. The existence of the atomic spectra is support for Bohr's model,
    • 4.3: Representing Valence Electrons with Dots
      The Lewis Structure of a molecule shows how the valence electrons are arranged among the atoms of the molecule. Lewis electron dot diagrams use dots to represent valence electrons around an atomic symbol. Lewis electron dot diagrams for ions have less (for cations) or more (for anions) dots than the corresponding atom. From experiment, chemists have learned that when a stable compound forms, the atoms usually have a noble gas electron configuration or eight valence electrons.
    • 4.4: Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred
      The tendency to form species that have eight electrons in the valence shell is called the octet rule. The attraction of oppositely charged ions caused by electron transfer is called an ionic bond. The strength of ionic bonding depends on the magnitude of the charges and the sizes of the ions.
    • 4.5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      Electromagnetic waves have an extremely wide range of wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. The highest energy form of electromagnetic waves are gamma (γ) rays and the lowest energy form are radio waves.

    Thumbnail: Sodium loses its outer electron to generate a sodium ion, which gives it a stable electron configuration. Image used with permission (CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported; Wdcf).

    4: Ions is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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