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Chemistry LibreTexts

3: Calculations with Chemical Equations and Solution Concentrations

  • Page ID
    • 3.1: How Much Carbon Dioxide?
      A balanced chemical equation may be used to describe a reaction’s stoichiometry (the relationships between amounts of reactants and products). Coefficients from the equation are used to derive stoichiometric factors that subsequently may be used for computations relating reactant and product masses, molar amounts, and other quantitative properties.
    • 3.2: 4.3 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield
      The stoichiometry of a balanced chemical equation identifies the maximum amount of product that can be obtained. The stoichiometry of a reaction describes the relative amounts of reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation. A stoichiometric quantity of a reactant is the amount necessary to react completely with the other reactant(s). If a reactant remains unconsumed after complete reaction has occurred, it is in excess. The reactant that is consumed first is the limiting reagent.
    • 3.3: Solution Concentration and Solution Stoichiomentry
      Solution concentrations are typically expressed as molarities and can be prepared by dissolving a known mass of solute in a solvent or diluting a stock solution. The concentration of a substance is the quantity of solute present in a given quantity of solution. Concentrations are usually expressed in terms of molarity, defined as the number of moles of solute in 1 L of solution.

    Thumbnail: Copper from a wire is displaced by silver in a silver nitrate solution it is dipped into, and solid silver precipitates out. (CC BY-SA 3.0 au; Toby Hudson via Wikipedia).