# 6: Chapter 6 - Survey of Chemical Reactions

• 6.1: Prelude to Chemical Reactions
The space shuttle-and any other rocket-based system-uses chemical reactions to propel itself into space and maneuver itself when it gets into orbit. The rockets that lift the orbiter are of two different types. Although the solid rocket boosters each have a significantly lower mass than the liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen tanks, they provide over 80% of the lift needed to put the shuttle into orbit-all because of chemical reactions.
• 6.2: The Chemical Equation
A chemical equation is a concise description of a chemical reaction. Proper chemical equations are balanced.
• 6.3: The Mole in Chemical Reactions
Balanced chemical reactions are balanced in terms of moles. A balanced chemical reaction gives equivalences in moles that allow stoichiometry calculations to be performed.
• 6.4: Stoichiometry
Quantities of substances can be related to each other using balanced chemical equations.
• 6.5: Limiting Reagents
The limiting reagent is that reactant that produces the least amount of product. Mass-mass calculations can determine how much product is produced and how much of the other reactants remain.
• 6.6: Types of Chemical Reactions - Single and Double Displacement Reactions
A single-replacement reaction replaces one element for another in a compound. The periodic table or an activity series can help predict whether single-replacement reactions occur. A double-replacement reaction exchanges the cations (or the anions) of two ionic compounds. A precipitation reaction is a double-replacement reaction in which one product is a solid precipitate. Solubility rules are used to predict whether some double-replacement reactions will occur.
• 6.7: Composition, Decomposition, and Combustion Reactions
A composition reaction produces a single substance from multiple reactants. A decomposition reaction produces multiple products from a single reactant. Combustion reactions are the combination of some compound with oxygen to make oxides of the other elements as products (although nitrogen atoms react to make $$N_2$$).
• 6.8: Neutralization Reactions
The Arrhenius definition of an acid is a substance that increases the amount of H+ in an aqueous solution. The Arrhenius definition of a base is a substance that increases the amount of OH- in an aqueous solution. Neutralization is the reaction of an acid and a base, which forms water and a salt. Net ionic equations for neutralization reactions may include solid acids, solid bases, solid salts, and water.
• 6.9: Energy
Energy is the ability to do work and uses the unit joule. The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system does not increase or decrease.
• 6.10: Enthalpy and Chemical Reactions
Every chemical reaction occurs with a concurrent change in energy. The change in enthalpy equals heat at constant pressure. Enthalpy changes can be expressed by using thermochemical equations. Enthalpy changes are measured by using calorimetry.
• 6.11: Chemical Reaction Rate
• 6.12: Collision Theory
• 6.13: Activation Energy
• 6.14: Chemical Equilibrium
• 6.15: Equilibrium Constant
• 6.16: Le Châtelier's Principle