# 7: Gases

- Page ID
- 369447

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- 7.1: Pressure of the Gas
- Gases exert pressure, which is force per unit area. The pressure of a gas may be expressed in the SI unit of pascal or kilopascal, as well as in many other units including torr, atmosphere, and bar. Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer; other gas pressures can be measured using one of several types of manometers.

- 7.2: simple Gas Laws
- The behavior of gases can be described by several laws based on experimental observations of their properties. including Amontons’s law, Charles’s law, Boyle’s lawand Avogadro’s law. These laws can be extracted directly from the ideal gas law.

- 7.3: Ideal Gas Law
- The empirical relationships among the volume, the temperature, the pressure, and the amount of a gas can be combined into the ideal gas law, PV = nRT. The proportionality constant, R, is called the gas constant. The ideal gas law describes the behavior of an ideal gas, a hypothetical substance whose behavior can be explained quantitatively by the ideal gas law and the kinetic molecular theory of gases. Standard temperature and pressure (STP) is 0°C and 1 atm.

- 7.4: Applying the Ideal Gas Law
- The ideal gas law allows us to calculate the value of the fourth quantity (P, V, T, or n) needed to describe a gaseous sample when the others are known and also predict the value of these quantities following a change in conditions if the original conditions (values of P, V, T, and n) are known. The ideal gas law can also be used to calculate the density of a gas if its molar mass is known or, conversely, the molar mass of an unknown gas sample if its density is measured.

- 7.5: Mixture of Gases
- The pressure exerted by each gas in a gas mixture is independent of the pressure exerted by all other gases present. Consequently, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the components (Dalton’s law of partial pressures). The amount of gas in a mixture may be described by its partial pressure or its mole fraction. In a mixture, the partial pressure of each gas is the product of the total pressure and the mole fraction.

- 7.6: Gas Stoichiometry
- Earlier in the course we performed stoichiometric calculations with chemical reactions using quantities of moles and mass (typically in grams). These same principles can be applied to chemical reactions involving gases except that we first have to convert volumes of gases into moles.

- 7.7: Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
- Gaseous atoms and molecules move freely and randomly through space. Diffusion is the process whereby gaseous atoms and molecules are transferred from regions of relatively high concentration to regions of relatively low concentration. Effusion is a similar process with gaseous species passing from a container to vacuum through a small orifices. The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their densities or to the square roots of their atoms/molecules’ masses.

- 7.8: Kinetic Molecular Theory
- The kinetic molecular theory is a simple but very effective model that effectively explains ideal gas behavior. The theory assumes that gases consist of widely separated molecules of negligible volume that are in constant motion, colliding elastically with one another and the walls of their container with average velocities determined by their absolute temperatures. The individual molecules of a gas exhibit a range of velocities.

- 7.9: Non Ideal Gas Behavior
- Gas molecules possess a finite volume and experience forces of attraction for one another. Consequently, gas behavior is not necessarily described well by the ideal gas law. Under conditions of low pressure and high temperature, these factors are negligible, the ideal gas equation is an accurate description of gas behavior, and the gas is said to exhibit ideal behavior. The van der Waals equation is a modified version of the ideal gas law that can be used to account for the non-ideal behavior.