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12: Free Radical Reactions

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    • 12.1: Reactive Intermediates - Radicals
      A radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valence electron (half filled orbital) creating a highly reactive intermediate.
    • 12.2: The Free-Radical Halogenation of Alkanes
      Free radical halogenation of alkanes is the substitution of a single hydrogen on the alkane for a single halogen to form a haloalkane. This reaction is very important in organic chemistry because it opens a gateway to further chemical reactions.  We will apply the reaction concepts discussed in this chapter to this reaction to show how empirical data supports these theories.
    • 12.3: Radical-Chain Addition Reactions to Alkenes
      The addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes involves two reaction mechanisms, each giving a different product.  These are the ionic addition and the radical-chain addition mechanisms.

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