Organic chemistry is a very vast and complex subject. There are millions of known organic compounds, which is far more than the number of inorganic compounds. The reason lies within the uniqueness of carbon's structure and bonding capabilities. Carbon has four valence electrons and therefore makes four separate covalent bonds in compounds. Carbon has the ability to bond to itself repeatedly, making long chains of carbon atoms as well as ringed structures. These bonds can be single, double, or triple covalent bonds. Carbon readily makes covalent bonds with other elements, primarily hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, halogens, and several other nonmetals.
- 11.1: Organic Chemistry
- Organic chemistry is the study of covalently bonded, carbon-containing molecules.
- 11.2: Straight-Chain Alkanes
- Hydrocarbons are covalently bonded molecules containing carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons can be aliphatic or aromatic. When an aliphatic hydrocarbon is connected in a straight line, that is a linear or straight chain hydrocarbon.
- 11.3: Branched Alkanes
- Hydrocarbons are covalently bonded molecules containing carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons can be aliphatic or aromatic. When an aliphatic hydrocarbon contains a tertiary or quaternary carbon atom, that is a branched hydrocarbon.
- 11.4: Alkenes and Alkynes
- Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Alkenes contain double bonds and alkynes contain triple bonds.
- 11.8: Functional Groups
- Functional groups are atoms or small groups of atoms (two to four) that exhibit a characteristic reactivity. A particular functional group will almost always display its characteristic chemical behavior when it is present in a compound. Because of their importance in understanding organic chemistry, functional groups have characteristic names that often carry over in the naming of individual compounds incorporating specific groups
CK-12 Foundation by Sharon Bewick, Richard Parsons, Therese Forsythe, Shonna Robinson, and Jean Dupon.