# 5.12: Exercises

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#### 5.2: Chemical Formulas

1. Classify each of the following as an atomic element, a molecular element, an ionic compound, or a molecular compound. State how many atoms are in each formula unit or molecule.
1. Fe
2. PCl3
3. P4
4. CaBr2
1. atomic element
2. molecular compound, 4 atoms
3. molecular element, 4 atoms
4. ionic compound, 3 atoms

1. Classify each of the following as an atomic element, a molecular element, an ionic compound, or a molecular compound. State how many atoms are in each formula unit or molecule.
1. I2
2. Fe(NO3)2
3. H2O
4. Al
1. molecular element, 2 atoms
2. ionic compound, 9 atoms
3. molecular compound, 3 atoms
4. atomic element

1. What is the difference between CO and Co?

CO is a molecular compound containing carbon and oxygen. Co is the atomic element cobalt.

1. What is the difference between H2O and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)?

H2O has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. H2O2 has two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms.

1. Explain why the formula for an atom of the element oxygen and the formula for a molecule of oxygen differ.

The symbol for the element oxygen, O, represents both the element and one atom of oxygen. A molecule of oxygen, O2, contains two oxygen atoms; the subscript 2 in the formula must be used to distinguish the diatomic molecule from two single oxygen atoms.

1. Write the molecular and empirical formulas of the following compounds:
1. molecular = CO2, empirical = CO2
2. molecular = C2H2, empirical = CH
3. molecular = C2H4, empirical = CH2
4. molecular = H2SO4, empirical = H2SO4

1. Write the molecular and empirical formulas of the following compounds:
1. molecular = C4H8; empirical = CH2
2. molecular = C4H6; empirical = C2H3
3. molecular = Si2H2Cl4; empirical = SiHCl2
4. molecular = H3PO4; empirical = H3PO4

1. Determine the empirical formulas for the following compounds:
1. caffeine, C8H10N4O2
2. sucrose, C12H22O11
3. hydrogen peroxide, H2O2
4. glucose, C6H12O6
5. ascorbic acid (vitamin C), C6H8O6
1. C4H5N2O
2. C12H22O11
3. HO
4. CH2O
5. C3H4O3

1. Write the empirical formulas for the following compounds:
1. CH2O
2. C2H4O

1. Determine the empirical formulas for the following compounds:
1. acetic acid, C2H4O2
2. citric acid, C6H8O7
3. hydrazine, N2H4
4. nicotine, C10H14N2
5. butane, C4H10
1. CH2O
2. C6H8O7
3. NH2
4. C5H7N
5. C2H5

#### 5.3: A Closer Look at Elements and Compounds

1. From their positions on the periodic table, will Cu and I form a molecular compound or an ionic compound?

ionic compound

1. From their positions on the periodic table, will N and S form a molecular compound or an ionic compound?

molecular compound

1. Using the periodic table, predict whether the following chlorides are ionic or covalent: KCl, NCl3, ICl, MgCl2, PCl5, and CCl4.

ionic = KCl, MgCl2; covalent = NCl3, ICl, PCl5, CCl4

1. Using the periodic table, predict whether the following chlorides are ionic or covalent: SiCl4, PCl3, CaCl2, CsCl, CuCl2, and CrCl3.

ionic = CaCl2, CsCl, CuCl2, CrCl3; covalent = SiCl4, PCl3

#### 5.4: Chemical Nomenclature and the Classification of Compounds

1. Classify each of the following compounds as binary ionic, ionic containing polyatomic ions, binary molecular, binary acid, or oxyacid.
1. NF3
2. HI
3. (NH4)2CO3
4. Sr3(PO4)2
5. BaO
6. H2SO4
1. binary molecular
2. binary acid
3. ionic containing polyatomic ions
4. ionic containing polyatomic ions
5. binary ionic
6. oxyacid

1. Classify each of the following compounds as binary ionic, ionic containing polyatomic ions, binary molecular, binary acid, or oxyacid.
1. HClO3
2. Mg(C2H3O2)2
3. H2S
4. Ag2S
5. N2Cl4
6. CoBr2
1. oxyacid
2. ionic containing polyatomic ions
3. binary acid
4. binary ionic
5. binary molecular
6. binary ionic

#### 5.5: Binary Ionic Compounds

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Mg2+ and Cl
2. Na+ and O2−
3. Cd2+ and O2−
1. MgCl2, magnesium chloride
2. Na2O, sodium oxide

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. K+ and S2−
2. Ag+ and Br
3. Sr2+ and N3−
1. K2S, potassium sulfide
2. AgBr, silver bromide
3. Sr3N2, strontium nitride

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Zn2+ and F
2. Ca2+ and O2−
3. Li+ and P3−
1. ZnF2, zinc fluoride
2. CaO, calcium oxide
3. Li3P, lithium phosphide

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Na+ and N3−
2. Sr2+ and I
3. Al3+ and S2−
1. Na3N, sodium nitride
2. SrI2, strontium iodide
3. Al2S3, aluminum sulfide

#### 5.6: Ions With Variable Charges

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Ni2+ and Cl
2. Fe2+ and O2−
3. Fe3+ and O2−
1. NiCl2, nickel(II) chloride
2. FeO, iron(II) oxide
3. Fe2O3, iron(III) oxide

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Cu+ and S2−
2. Pt2+ and Br
3. Cr2+ and N3−
1. Cu2S, copper(I) sulfide
2. PtBr2, platinum(II) bromide
3. Cr3N2, chromium(II) nitride

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Cu2+ and F
2. U6+ and O2−
3. Au+ and P3−
1. CuF2, copper(II) fluoride
2. UO3, uranium(VI) oxide
3. Au3P, gold(I) phosphide

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Sn2+ and N3−
2. Co2+ and I
3. Au3+ and S2−
1. Sn3N2, tin(II) nitride
2. CoI2, cobalt(II) iodide
3. Au2S3, gold(III) sulfide

1. Name each of the following compounds:
1. Cr2O3
2. FeCl2
3. CrO3
4. TiCl4
5. CoO
6. SnS2
1. chromium(III) oxide
2. iron(II) chloride
3. chromium(VI) oxide
4. titanium(IV) chloride
5. cobalt(II) oxide
6. tin(IV) sulfide

1. Name each of the following compounds:
1. NiBr2
2. WO3
3. CoS
4. V2O5
5. MnO2
6. Fe2O3
1. nickel(II) bromide
2. tungsten(VI) oxide
3. cobalt(II) sulfide
5. manganese(IV) oxide
6. iron(III) oxide

#### 5.7: Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. K+ and SO42
2. NH4+ and S2−
3. NH4+ and PO43
1. K2SO4, potassium sulfate
2. (NH4)2S, ammonium sulfide
3. (NH4)3PO4, ammonium phosphate

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Ca2+ and NO3
2. Ca2+ and NO2
3. W3+ and C2H3O2
1. Ca(NO3)2, calcium nitrate
2. Ca(NO2)2, calcium nitrite
3. W(C2H3O2)3, tungsten(III) acetate

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Pb4+ and SO42
2. Na+ and NO3
3. Li+ and CO32
2. NaNO3, sodium nitrate
3. Li2CO3, lithium carbonate

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. NH4+ and N3−
2. Mg2+ and CN
3. Al3+ and OH
1. (NH4)3N, ammonium nitride
2. Mg(CN)2, magnesium cyanide
3. Al(OH)3, aluminum hydroxide

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Ag+ and SO32
2. Na+ and HCO3
3. Fe3+ and ClO3
1. Ag2SO3, silver sulfite
2. NaHCO3, sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate
3. Fe(ClO3)3, iron(III) chlorate

1. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions.
1. Sn2+ and C2H3O2
2. Au3+ and SO32
3. Sr2+ and NO2
1. Sn(C2H3O2)2, tin(II) acetate
2. Au2(SO3)3, gold(III) sulfite
3. Sr(NO2)2, strontium nitrite

1. The uranyl cation has the formula UO22+. Propose formulas and names for the ionic compounds between the uranyl cation and F, SO42, and PO43.

UO2F2, uranyl fluoride; UO2SO4, uranyl sulfate; (UO2)3(PO4)2, uranyl phosphate

1. The permanganate anion has the formula MnO4. Propose formulas and names for the ionic compounds between the permanganate ion and K+, Ca2+, and Fe3+.

KMnO4, potassium permangante; Ca(MnO4)2, calcium permanganate; Fe(MnO4)3, iron(III) permanganate

1. For each of the following pairs of ions, write the formula of the compound they will form:
1. Ca2+, S2−
2. $$\ce{NH4+}$$, $$\ce{SO4^2-}$$
3. Al3+, Br
4. Na+, $$\ce{SO4^2-}$$
5. Mg2+, $$\ce{PO4^3-}$$
1. CaS
2. (NH4)2SO4
3. AlBr3
4. Na2SO4
5. Mg3(PO4)2

1. For each of the following pairs of ions, write the formula of the compound they will form:
1. K+, O2−
2. $$\ce{NH4+}$$, $$\ce{PO4^3-}$$
3. Al3+, O2−
4. Li+, $$\ce{CO3^2-}$$
5. Ba2+, $$\ce{PO4^3-}$$
1. K2O
2. (NH4)3PO4
3. Al2O3
4. Li2CO3
5. Ba3(PO4)2

1. Write the formulas for each of the following compounds:
1. potassium phosphate
2. copper(II) sulfate
3. calcium chloride
4. titanium(IV) oxide
5. ammonium nitrate
1. K3PO4
2. CuSO4
3. CaCl2
4. TiO2
5. NH4NO3

1. Name each of the following compounds:
1. Ca(ClO3)2
2. FeSO4
3. CaCO3
4. AgNO2
5. Ni(CN)3
1. calcium chlorate
2. iron(II) sulfate
3. calcium carbonate
4. silver nitrite
5. nickel(III) cyanide

#### 5.8: Binary Molecular Compounds

1. What is the stem of fluorine used in molecule names? CF4 is one example.

fluor–

1. What is the stem of bromine used in molecule names? SiBr4 is an example.

brom–

1. Give the proper name for each molecule.
1. PF3
2. SCl2
3. N2O3
1. phosphorus trifluoride
2. sulfur dichloride
3. dinitrogen trioxide

1. Give the proper name for each molecule.
1. NO
2. CS2
3. As2O3
1. nitrogen monoxide
2. carbon disulfide
3. diarsenic trioxide

1. Give the proper name for each molecule.
1. XeF2
2. O2F2
3. SF6
1. xenon difluoride
2. dioxygen difluoride
3. sulfur hexafluoride

1. Give the proper name for each molecule.
1. P4O10
2. B2O3
3. P2S3
1. tetraphosphorus decoxide
2. diboron trioxide
3. diphosphorus trisulfide

1. Give the proper name for each molecule.
1. N2O
2. N2O4
3. N2O5
1. dinitrogen monoxide
2. dinitrogen tetroxide
3. dinitrogen pentoxide

1. Give the proper name for each molecule.
1. SO2
2. Cl2O
3. XeF6
1. sulfur dioxide
2. dichlorine monoxide
3. xenon hexafluoride

1. Give the proper formula for each name.
1. dinitrogen pentoxide
2. tetraboron tricarbide
3. phosphorus pentachloride
1. N2O5
2. B4C3
3. PCl5

1. Give the proper formula for each name.
1. nitrogen triiodide
2. diarsenic trisulfide
3. iodine trichloride
1. NI3
2. As2S3
3. ICl3

1. Give the proper formula for each name.
1. dioxygen difluoride
2. dinitrogen trisulfide
3. xenon tetrafluoride
1. O2F2
2. N2S3
3. XeF4

1. Give the proper formula for each name.
1. chlorine dioxide
2. sulfur dibromide
3. dinitrogen trioxide
1. ClO2
2. SBr2
3. N2O3

1. Give the proper formula for each name.
1. iodine trifluoride
2. xenon trioxide
3. disulfur decafluoride
1. IF3
2. XeO3
3. S2F10

1. Give the proper formula for each name.
1. silicon dioxide
2. carbon disulfide
3. disulfur dibromide
1. SiO2
2. CS2
3. S2Br2

#### 5.9: Acids

1. Give the formula for each acid.
1. chloric acid
2. hydroiodic acid
1. HClO3
2. HI

1. Give the formula for each acid.
1. hydrosulfuric acid
2. phosphorous acid
1. H2S
2. H3PO3

1. Name each acid.
1. HF(aq)
2. HNO3(aq)
3. HC2H3O2(aq)
1. hydrofluoric acid
2. nitric acid
3. acetic acid

1. Name each acid.
1. H2SO4(aq)
2. H3PO4(aq)
3. HCl(aq)
1. sulfuric acid
2. phosphoric acid
3. hydrochloric acid

#### 5.10: Nomenclature Summary

1. Name the following compounds:
1. HClO2
2. CuO
3. K2SO4
4. BrCl3
5. HBr
6. AlF3
1. chlorous acid
2. copper(II) oxide
3. potassium sulfate
4. bromine trichloride
5. hydrobromic acid
6. aluminum fluoride

1. Name the following compounds:
1. NaF
2. (NH4)2O
3. MnCl3
4. H2S
5. P4O6
6. HNO3
1. sodium fluoride
2. ammonium oxide
3. manganese(III) chloride
4. hydrosulfuric acid
5. tetraphosphorus hexoxide
6. nitric acid

1. Write the formulas of the following compounds:
1. strontium bromide
2. acetic acid
4. gold(III) hydroxide
5. hydrofluoric acid
6. diphosphorus pentasulfide
7. aluminum sulfite
8. krypton tetrafluoride
1. SrBr2
2. HC2H3O2
3. PbO
4. Au(OH)3
5. HF
6. P2S5
7. Al2(SO3)3
8. KrF4

1. Write the formulas of the following compounds:
1. lithium carbonate
2. silver sulfide
3. molybdenum(III) nitride
4. diboron hexahydride
5. sulfuric acid
6. trisulfur heptachloride
7. manganese(IV) chlorate
8. hydrobromic acid
1. Li2CO3
2. Ag2S
3. MoN
4. B2H6
5. H2SO4
6. S3Cl7
7. Mn(ClO3)4
8. HBr

1. Write the formulas of the following compounds:
1. chlorine dioxide
2. carbonic acid
3. potassium phosphide
4. nickel(III) nitrite
5. aluminum chlorite
6. carbon disulfide
1. ClO2
2. H2CO3
3. K3P
4. Ni(NO2)3
5. Al(ClO2)3
6. CS2

1. Write the formulas of the following compounds:
1. barium chloride
2. xenon dioxide
3. iron(III) nitrate
4. acetic acid
5. dinitrogen trioxide
6. tin(IV) chloride
1. BaCl2
2. XeO2
3. Fe(NO3)3
4. HC2H3O2
5. N2O
6. SnCl4

This page was adapted from "Beginning Chemistry (Ball)" by LibreTexts and "Chemistry (OpenStax)" by LibreTexts and is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Vicki MacMurdo (Anoka-Ramsey Community College) and Lance S. Lund (Anoka-Ramsey Community College).

This page titled 5.12: Exercises is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Anonymous.