Before spectroscopic analysis (IR, NMR) became commonplace in the organic chemistry lab, chemical tests were heavily relied upon to support compound identification. A chemical test is typically a fast reaction performed in a test tube that gives a dramatic visual clue (a color change, precipitate, or gas formation) as evidence for a chemical reaction.
- 6.4A: Overview of Chemical Tests
- A chemical test is typically a fast reaction performed in a test tube that gives a dramatic visual clue (a color change, precipitate, or gas formation) as evidence for a chemical reaction. For example, addition of an orange chromic acid reagent to some compounds causes the chromium reagent to change to a blue-green color. This is considered a "positive" test result, and in this case indicates the presence of a functional group that can be oxidized (alcohol or aldehyde).
- 6.4B: Flowcharts
- In some teaching labs, a combination of spectroscopy and chemical tests are used in determination of an unknown. If available, an infrared spectrometer is very useful in determining possible functional groups present in an unknown. The following flowcharts summarize key signals present in an IR spectrum, and chemical tests that can be used to support or narrow down structural identification.
- 6.4C: Chemical Test Summary
- To follow is a visual summary of the various chemical tests. Procedures and details are provided for each in the following section.
- 6.4D: Individual Tests
- The Beilstein test confirms the presence of a halogen in solution, although it does not distinguish between chlorine, bromine, or iodine. A copper wire is dipped into the halogen-containing solution and thrust into a flame. The copper oxide on the wire reacts with the organic halide to produce a copper-halide compound that gives a blue-green color to the flame.