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1.17: Additional Exercises

  • Page ID
    122434
  • Bond Formation: The Octet Rule

    1-1 Identify the number of valence electrons for each of the following elements. Then, identify the maximum number of covalent bonds it can form with other atoms while keeping a neutral net charge.

    a) Oxygen

    b) Carbon

    c) Chlorine

    d) Sulfur

    e) Hydrogen

    f) Boron

    1-2 Which of the following atoms can bond with Br - to satisfy the octet rule?

    a) Mg+2

    b) O-2

    c) Cl-

    d) K+

    1-3 Draw the Lewis dot structure of the correct answer from the previous problem 1-2 (a) - (d).

    1-4 Identify which of the following compounds could not form due to an unfilled octet.

    a) NCl3

    b) NaOH

    c) PCl

    d) CF4

    Lewis Structures

    1-5 Draw the Lewis structures for the following compounds.

    a) H2O

    b) O3

    c) BH3

    d) SOCl2

    1-6 Name the element that corresponds to each electronic configuration and identify how many valence electrons it has.

    a) 1s22s22p6

    b) 1s22s22p63s2

    c) 1s22s22p4

    d) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5

    1-7 Draw the Lewis structures for PF3 and PF5.

    1-8 Draw the Lewis structure for furan.

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    1-9 Identify the correct Lewis structure for hydroperoxyl, HO2.

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    Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

    1-10 For the indicated bond in each of the following compounds, identify which atom is more electronegative, if applicable.

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    1-11 For each of the compounds in the previous problem, add a dipole moment arrow.

    Formal Charges

    1-12 For the following compounds, draw the structural formula. Then calculate the formal charge on each atom other than hydrogen.

    a) N(CH3)4+

    b) HSO4-

    c) CH3CC-

    1-13 Identify the formal charge for the following compounds.

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    1-14 Identify the formal charges for the central carbon in each of the following compounds.

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    Ionic Structures

    1-15 Identify the substituent ions that make up the following salts.

    a) NaCl

    b) MgBr2

    c) KNO3

    d) NaH2PO4

    1-16 Identify the products of the following reactions.

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    1-17 Give the correct nomenclature or write the correct chemical formula for the following ionic compounds.

    a) NaCN

    b) calcium oxalate

    c) Al(OH)3

    d) tin (II) phosphate

    e) potassium hypochlorite

    Resonance

    1-18 For the following structure, draw its resonance structure(s).

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    1-19 Which resonance form from the previous problem has the most stable carbocation? Explain your answer.

    1-20 Draw the important resonance forms to show the delocalization of charges in the following compounds.

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    1-21 Explain how resonance contributes to the lower pKa of acetic acid CH3CO2H (pKa= 4.75) compared to the pKa of ethanol CH3CH2OH (pKa=15.9).

    1-22 Draw the resonance structure(s) for fulminic acid (HCNO).

    Structural, Molecular and Empirical Formulas

    1-23 Identify the molecular and empirical formula for the following structures.

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    1-24 Draw all possible structural formulas for the following compounds.

    a) C4H10

    b) CHN

    c) C4H9Cl

    1-25 True or False: You can always calculate the exact molecular weight of a molecule from its empirical formula.

    1-26 For the following molecular formulas, provide the empirical formula.

    a) C4H4O2

    b) C8H6N2

    c) C9H21N3O3

    Acids and Bases - Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis

    1-27 Briefly explain the three different definitions of acids and bases.

    1-28 Calculate the Ka of nitric acid (HNO3). pKa of nitric acid is -1.4.

    1-29 Rank the following in order of decreasing acidity: NH4+ HF H3O+ H2O

    1-30 Rank the following in order of decreasing basicity: HSO4- H2O CH3COO- NH2-

    1-31 Identify which compound is the stronger base. Identify which compound is the stronger acid.

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    1.32 Identify which group is more likely to grab a H+.

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