Skip to main content
Chemistry LibreTexts

T1: Standard Thermodynamic Quantities

  • Page ID
    9064
  • Standard thermodynamic Quantities for Chemical Substances at 25°C. Source of data: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,84th Edition (2004).

    Aluminum
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Al(s) 0.0 0.0 28.3
    Al(g) 330.0 289.4 164.6
    AlCl3(s) −704.2 −628.8 109.3
    Al2O3(s) −1675.7 −1582.3 50.9
    Barium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Ba(s) 0.0 0.0 62.5
    Ba(g) 180.0 146.0 170.2
    BaO(s) −548.0 −520.3 72.1
    BaCO3(s) −1213.0 −1134.4 112.1
    BaSO4(s) −1473.2 −1362.2 132.2
    Beryllium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Be(s) 0.0 0.0 9.5
    Be(g) 324.0 286.6 136.3
    Be(OH)2(s) −902.5 −815.0 45.5
    BeO(s) −609.4 −580.1 13.8
    Bismuth
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Bi(s) 0.0 0.0 56.7
    Bi(g) 207.1 168.2 187.0
    Bromine
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Br(g) 111.9 82.4 175.0
    Br2(l) 0.0 0.0 152.2
    Br(aq) −121.6 −104.0 82.4
    Br2(g) 30.9 3.1 245.5
    HBr(g) −36.3 −53.4 198.7
    HBr(aq) −121.6 −104.0 82.4
    Cadmium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Cd(s) 0.0 0.0 51.8
    Cd(g) 111.8 167.7
    CdCl2(s) −391.5 −343.9 115.3
    CdS(s) −161.9 −156.5 64.9
    Calcium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Ca(s) 0.0 0.0 41.6
    Ca(g) 177.8 144.0 154.9
    CaCl2(s) −795.4 −748.8 108.4
    CaF2(s) −1228.0 −1175.6 68.5
    Ca(OH)2(s) −985.2 −897.5 83.4
    CaO(s) −634.9 −603.3 38.1
    CaSO4(s) −1434.5 −1322.0 106.5
    CaCO3(s, calcite) −1207.6 −1129.1 91.7
    CaCO3(s, aragonite) −1207.8 −1128.2 88.0
    Carbon
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    C(s, graphite) 0.0 0.0 5.7
    C(s, diamond) 1.9 2.9 2.4
    C(s, fullerene—C60) 2327.0 2302.0 426.0
    C(s, fullerene—C70) 2555.0 2537.0 464.0
    C(g) 716.7 671.3 158.1
    C(g, fullerene—C60) 2502.0 2442.0 544.0
    C(g, fullerene—C70) 2755.0 2692.0 614.0
    CBr4(s) 29.4 47.7 212.5
    CBr4(g) 83.9 67.0 358.1
    CCl2F2(g) −477.4 −439.4 300.8
    CCl2O(g) −219.1 −204.9 283.5
    CCl4(l) −128.2 −62.6 216.2
    CCl4(g) −95.7 −53.6 309.9
    CF4(g) −933.6 −888.3 261.6
    CHCl3(l) −134.1 −73.7 201.7
    CHCl3(g) −102.7 6.0 295.7
    CH2Cl2(l) −124.2 177.8
    CH2Cl2(g) −95.4 −68.9 270.2
    CH3Cl(g) −81.9 −58.5 234.6
    CH4(g) −74.6 −50.5 186.3
    CH3COOH(l) −484.3 −389.9 159.8
    CH3OH(l) −239.2 −166.6 126.8
    CH3OH(g) −201.0 −162.3 239.9
    CH3NH2(l) −47.3 35.7 150.2
    CH3NH2(g) −22.5 32.7 242.9
    CH3CN(l) 40.6 86.5 149.6
    CH3CN(g) 74.0 91.9 243.4
    CO(g) −110.5 −137.2 197.7
    CO2(g) −393.5 −394.4 213.8
    CS2(l) 89.0 64.6 151.3
    CS2(g) 116.7 67.1 237.8
    C2H2(g) 227.4 209.9 200.9
    C2H4(g) 52.4 68.4 219.3
    C2H6(g) −84.0 −32.0 229.2
    C3H8(g) −103.8 −23.4 270.3
    C3H6O3(s) (lactic acid) −694.1 −522.9 142.3
    C6H6(l) 49.1 124.5 173.4
    C6H6(g) 82.9 129.7 269.2
    C6H12O6(s) (glucose) −1273.3 −910.4 212.1
    C2H5OH(l) −277.6 −174.8 160.7
    C2H5OH(g) −234.8 −167.9 281.6
    (CH3)2O(l) −203.3
    (CH3)2O(g) −184.1 −112.6 266.4
    CH3CO2(aq) −486.0 −369.3 86.6
    n-C12H26(l) (dodecane) −350.9 28.1 490.6
    Cesium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Cs(s) 0.0 0.0 85.2
    Cs(g) 76.5 49.6 175.6
    CsCl(s) −443.0 −414.5 101.2
    Chlorine
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Cl(g) 121.3 105.3 165.2
    Cl2(g) 0.0 0.0 223.1
    Cl(aq) −167.2 −131.2 56.5
    HCl(g) −92.3 −95.3 186.9
    HCl(aq) −167.2 −131.2 56.5
    ClF3(g) −163.2 −123.0 281.6
    Chromium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Cr(s) 0.0 0.0 23.8
    Cr(g) 396.6 351.8 174.5
    CrCl3(s) −556.5 −486.1 123.0
    CrO3(g) −292.9 266.2
    Cr2O3(s) −1139.7 −1058.1 81.2
    Cobalt
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Co(s) 0.0 0.0 30.0
    Co(g) 424.7 380.3 179.5
    CoCl2(s) −312.5 −269.8 109.2
    Copper
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Cu(s) 0.0 0.0 33.2
    Cu(g) 337.4 297.7 166.4
    CuCl(s) −137.2 −119.9 86.2
    CuCl2(s) −220.1 −175.7 108.1
    CuO(s) −157.3 −129.7 42.6
    Cu2O(s) −168.6 −146.0 93.1
    CuS(s) −53.1 −53.6 66.5
    Cu2S(s) −79.5 −86.2 120.9
    CuCN(s) 96.2 111.3 84.5
    Fluorine
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    F(g) 79.4 62.3 158.8
    F(aq) −332.6 −278.8 −13.8
    F2(g) 0.0 0.0 202.8
    HF(g) −273.3 −275.4 173.8
    HF(aq) −332.6 −278.8 −13.8
    Hydrogen
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    H(g) 218.0 203.3 114.7
    H2(g) 0.0 0.0 130.7
    H+(aq) 0.0 0.0 0.0
    Iodine
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    I(g) 106.8 70.2 180.8
    I(aq) −55.2 −51.6 111.3
    I2(s) 0.0 0.0 116.1
    I2(g) 62.4 19.3 260.7
    HI(g) 26.5 1.7 206.6
    HI(aq) −55.2 −51.6 111.3
    Iron
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Fe(s) 0.0 0.0 27.3
    Fe(g) 416.3 370.7 180.5
    Fe2+(aq) −89.1 −78.9 −137.7
    Fe3+(aq) −48.5 −4.7 −315.9
    FeCl2(s) −341.8 −302.3 118.0
    FeCl3(s) −399.5 −334.0 142.3
    FeO(s) −272.0 −251.4 60.7
    Fe2O3(s) −824.2 −742.2 87.4
    Fe3O4(s) −1118.4 −1015.4 146.4
    FeS2(s) −178.2 −166.9 52.9
    FeCO3(s) −740.6 −666.7 92.9
    Lead
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Pb(s) 0.0 0.0 64.8
    Pb(g) 195.2 162.2 175.4
    PbO(s, red or litdarge) −219.0 −188.9 66.5
    PbO(s, yellow or massicot) −217.3 −187.9 68.7
    PbO2(s) −277.4 −217.3 68.6
    PbCl2(s) −359.4 −314.1 136.0
    PbS(s) −100.4 −98.7 91.2
    PbSO4(s) −920.0 −813.0 148.5
    PbCO3(s) −699.1 −625.5 131.0
    Pb(NO3)2(s) −451.9
    Pb(NO3)2(aq) −416.3 −246.9 303.3
    Lithium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Li(s) 0.0 0.0 29.1
    Li(g) 159.3 126.6 138.8
    Li+(aq) −278.5 −293.3 13.4
    LiCl(s) −408.6 −384.4 59.3
    Li2O(s) −597.9 −561.2 37.6
    Magnesium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Mg(s) 0.0 0.0 32.7
    Mg(g) 147.1 112.5 148.6
    MgCl2(s) −641.3 −591.8 89.6
    MgO(s) −601.6 −569.3 27.0
    Mg(OH)2(s) −924.5 −833.5 63.2
    MgSO4(s) −1284.9 −1170.6 91.6
    MgS(s) −346.0 −341.8 50.3
    Manganese
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Mn(s) 0.0 0.0 32.0
    Mn(g) 280.7 238.5 173.7
    MnCl2(s) −481.3 −440.5 118.2
    MnO(s) −385.2 −362.9 59.7
    MnO2(s) −520.0 −465.1 53.1
    KMnO4(s) −837.2 −737.6 171.7
    MnO4(aq) −541.4 −447.2 191.2
    Mercury
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Hg(l) 0.0 0.0 75.9
    Hg(g) 61.4 31.8 175.0
    HgCl2(s) −224.3 −178.6 146.0
    Hg2Cl2(s) −265.4 −210.7 191.6
    HgO(s) −90.8 −58.5 70.3
    HgS(s, red) −58.2 −50.6 82.4
    Hg2(g) 108.8 68.2 288.1
    Molybdenum
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Mo(s) 0.0 0.0 28.7
    Mo(g) 658.1 612.5 182.0
    MoO2(s) −588.9 −533.0 46.3
    MoO3(s) −745.1 −668.0 77.7
    Nickel
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Ni(s) 0.0 0.0 29.9
    Ni(g) 429.7 384.5 182.2
    NiCl2(s) −305.3 −259.0 97.7
    Ni(OH)2(s) −529.7 −447.2 88.0
    Nitrogen
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    N(g) 472.7 455.5 153.3
    N2(g) 0.0 0.0 191.6
    NH3(g) −45.9 −16.4 192.8
    NH4+(aq) −132.5 −79.3 113.4
    N2H4(l) 50.6 149.3 121.2
    N2H4(g) 95.4 159.4 238.5
    NH4Cl(s) −314.4 −202.9 94.6
    NH4OH(l) −361.2 −254.0 165.6
    NH4NO3(s) −365.6 −183.9 151.1
    (NH4)2SO4(s) −1180.9 −901.7 220.1
    NO(g) 91.3 87.6 210.8
    NO2(g) 33.2 51.3 240.1
    N2O(g) 81.6 103.7 220.0
    N2O4(l) −19.5 97.5 209.2
    N2O4(g) 11.1 99.8 304.4
    HNO2(g) −79.5 −46.0 254.1
    HNO3(l) −174.1 −80.7 155.6
    HNO3(g) −133.9 −73.5 266.9
    HNO3(aq) −207.4 −111.3 146.4
    NF3(g) −132.1 −90.6 260.8
    HCN(l) 108.9 125.0 112.8
    HCN(g) 135.1 124.7 201.8
    Osmium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Os(s) 0.0 0.0 32.6
    Os(g) 791.0 745.0 192.6
    OsO4(s) −394.1 −304.9 143.9
    OsO4(g) −337.2 −292.8 293.8
    Oxygen
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    O(g) 249.2 231.7 161.1
    O2(g) 0.0 0.0 205.2
    O3(g) 142.7 163.2 238.9
    OH(aq) −230.0 −157.2 −10.8
    H2O(l) −285.8 −237.1 70.0
    H2O(g) −241.8 −228.6 188.8
    H2O2(l) −187.8 −120.4 109.6
    H2O2(g) −136.3 −105.6 232.7
    Phosphorus
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    P(s, white) 0.0 0.0 41.1
    P(s, red) −17.6 −17.6 −12.5 22.8
    P(s, black) −39.3
    P(g, white) 316.5 280.1 163.2
    P2(g) 144.0 103.5 218.1
    P4(g) 58.9 24.4 280.0
    PCl3(l) −319.7 −272.3 217.1
    PCl3(g) −287.0 −267.8 311.8
    POCl3(l) −597.1 −520.8 222.5
    POCl3(g) −558.5 −512.9 325.5
    PCl5(g) −374.9 −305.0 364.6
    PH3(g) 5.4 13.5 210.2
    H3PO4(s) −1284.4 −1124.3 110.5
    H3PO4(l) −1271.7 −1123.6 150.8
    Potassium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    K(s) 0.0 0.0 64.7
    K(g) 89.0 60.5 160.3
    KBr(s) −393.8 −380.7 95.9
    KCl(s) −436.5 −408.5 82.6
    KClO3(s) −397.7 −296.3 143.1
    K2O(s) −361.5 −322.1 94.1
    K2O2(s) −494.1 −425.1 102.1
    KNO2(s) −369.8 −306.6 152.1
    KNO3(s) −494.6 −394.9 133.1
    KSCN(s) −200.2 −178.3 124.3
    K2CO3(s) −1151.0 −1063.5 155.5
    K2SO4(s) −1437.8 −1321.4 175.6
    Rubidium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Rb(s) 0.0 0.0 76.8
    Rb(g) 80.9 53.1 170.1
    RbCl(s) −435.4 −407.8 95.9
    Selenium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Se(s, gray) 0.0 0.0 42.4
    Se(g, gray) 227.1 187.0 176.7
    H2Se(g) 29.7 15.9 219.0
    Silicon
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Si(s) 0.0 0.0 18.8
    Si(g) 450.0 405.5 168.0
    SiCl4(l) −687.0 −619.8 239.7
    SiCl4(g) −657.0 −617.0 330.7
    SiH4(g) 34.3 56.9 204.6
    SiC(s, cubic) −65.3 −62.8 16.6
    SiC(s, hexagonal) −62.8 −60.2 16.5
    Silver
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Ag(s) 0.0 0.0 42.6
    Ag(g) 284.9 246.0 173.0
    Ag+(aq) 105.6 77.1 72.7
    AgBr(s) −100.4 −96.9 107.1
    AgCl(s) −127.0 −109.8 96.3
    AgNO3(s) −124.4 −33.4 140.9
    Ag2O(s) −31.1 −11.2 121.3
    Ag2S(s) −32.6 −40.7 144.0
    Sodium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Na(s) 0.0 0.0 51.3
    Na(g) 107.5 77.0 153.7
    Na+(aq) −240.1 −261.9 59.0
    NaF(s) −576.6 −546.3 51.1
    NaF(aq) −572.8 −540.7 45.2
    NaCl(s) −411.2 −384.1 72.1
    NaCl(aq) −407.3 −393.1 115.5
    NaBr(s) −361.1 −349.0 86.8
    NaBr(g) −143.1 −177.1 241.2
    NaBr(aq) −361.7 −365.8 141.4
    NaO2(s) −260.2 −218.4 115.9
    Na2O(s) −414.2 −375.5 75.1
    Na2O2(s) −510.9 −447.7 95.0
    NaCN(s) −87.5 −76.4 115.6
    NaNO3(aq) −447.5 −373.2 205.4
    NaNO3(s) −467.9 −367.0 116.5
    NaN3(s) 21.7 93.8 96.9
    Na2CO3(s) −1130.7 −1044.4 135.0
    Na2SO4(s) −1387.1 −1270.2 149.6
    Sulfur
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    S(s, rhombic) 0.0 0.0 32.1
    S(g, rhombic) 277.2 236.7 167.8
    SO2(g) −296.8 −300.1 248.2
    SO3(g) −395.7 −371.1 256.8
    SO42−(aq) −909.3 −744.5 20.1
    SOCl2(g) −212.5 −198.3 309.8
    H2S(g) −20.6 −33.4 205.8
    H2SO4(aq) −909.3 −744.5 20.1
    Tin
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Sn(s, white) 0.0 0.0 51.2
    Sn(s, gray) −2.1 0.1 44.1
    Sn(g, white) 301.2 266.2 168.5
    SnCl4(l) −511.3 −440.1 258.6
    SnCl4(g) −471.5 −432.2 365.8
    SnO2(s) −557.6 −515.8 49.0
    Titanium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Ti(s) 0.0 0.0 30.7
    Ti(g) 473.0 428.4 180.3
    TiCl2(s) −513.8 −464.4 87.4
    TiCl3(s) −720.9 −653.5 139.7
    TiCl4(l) −804.2 −737.2 252.3
    TiCl4(g) −763.2 −726.3 353.2
    TiO2(s) −944.0 −888.8 50.6
    Uranium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    U(s) 0.0 0.0 50.2
    U(g) 533.0 488.4 199.8
    UO2(s) −1085.0 −1031.8 77.0
    UO2(g) −465.7 −471.5 274.6
    UF4(s) −1914.2 −1823.3 151.7
    UF4(g) −1598.7 −1572.7 368.0
    UF6(s) −2197.0 −2068.5 227.6
    UF6(g) −2147.4 −2063.7 377.9
    Vanadium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    V(s) 0.0 0.0 28.9
    V(g) 514.2 754.4 182.3
    VCl3(s) −580.7 −511.2 131.0
    VCl4(l) −569.4 −503.7 255.0
    VCl4(g) −525.5 −492.0 362.4
    V2O5(s) −1550.6 −1419.5 131.0
    Zinc
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Zn(s) 0.0 0.0 41.6
    Zn(g) 130.4 94.8 161.0
    ZnCl2(s) −415.1 −369.4 111.5
    Zn(NO3)2(s) −483.7
    ZnS(s, sphalerite) −206.0 −201.3 57.7
    ZnSO4(s) −982.8 −871.5 110.5
    Zirconium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Zr(s) 0.0 0.0 39.0
    Zr(g) 608.8 566.5 181.4
    ZrCl2(s) −502.0 −386 110
    ZrCl4(s) −980.5 −889.9 181.6