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Chemistry LibreTexts

T1: Standard Thermodynamic Quantities

  • Page ID
    9064
  • Standard Thermodynamic Quantities for Chemical Substances at 25°C. Source of data: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,84th Edition (2004).

    Aluminum
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Al(s) 0.0 0.0 28.3
    Al(g) 330.0 289.4 164.6
    AlCl3(s) −704.2 −628.8 109.3
    Al2O3(s) −1675.7 −1582.3 50.9
    Barium
    Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/mol K)
    Ba(s) 0.0 0.0 62.5
    Ba(g) 180.0 146.0 170.2
    BaO(s) −548.0 −520.3 72.1
    BaCO3(s) −1213.0 −1134.4 112.1
    BaSO4(s) −1473.2 −1362.2 132.2
    Beryllium
    Be(s) 0.0 0.0 9.5
    Be(g) 324.0 286.6 136.3
    Be(OH)2(s) −902.5 −815.0 45.5
    BeO(s) −609.4 −580.1 13.8
    Bismuth
    Bi(s) 0.0 0.0 56.7
    Bi(g) 207.1 168.2 187.0
    Bromine
    Br(g) 111.9 82.4 175.0
    Br2(l) 0.0 0.0 152.2
    Br(aq) −121.6 −104.0 82.4
    Br2(g) 30.9 3.1 245.5
    HBr(g) −36.3 −53.4 198.7
    HBr(aq) −121.6 −104.0 82.4
    Cadmium
    Cd(s) 0.0 0.0 51.8
    Cd(g) 111.8 167.7
    CdCl2(s) −391.5 −343.9 115.3
    CdS(s) −161.9 −156.5 64.9
    Calcium
    Ca(s) 0.0 0.0 41.6
    Ca(g) 177.8 144.0 154.9
    CaCl2(s) −795.4 −748.8 108.4
    CaF2(s) −1228.0 −1175.6 68.5
    Ca(OH)2(s) −985.2 −897.5 83.4
    CaO(s) −634.9 −603.3 38.1
    CaSO4(s) −1434.5 −1322.0 106.5
    CaCO3(s, calcite) −1207.6 −1129.1 91.7
    CaCO3(s, aragonite) −1207.8 −1128.2 88.0
    Carbon
    C(s, graphite) 0.0 0.0 5.7
    C(s, diamond) 1.9 2.9 2.4
    C(s, fullerene—C60) 2327.0 2302.0 426.0
    C(s, fullerene—C70) 2555.0 2537.0 464.0
    C(g) 716.7 671.3 158.1
    C(g, fullerene—C60) 2502.0 2442.0 544.0
    C(g, fullerene—C70) 2755.0 2692.0 614.0
    CBr4(s) 29.4 47.7 212.5
    CBr4(g) 83.9 67.0 358.1
    CCl2F2(g) −477.4 −439.4 300.8
    CCl2O(g) −219.1 −204.9 283.5
    CCl4(l) −128.2 −62.6 216.2
    CCl4(g) −95.7 −53.6 309.9
    CF4(g) −933.6 −888.3 261.6
    CHCl3(l) −134.1 −73.7 201.7
    CHCl3(g) −102.7 6.0 295.7
    CH2Cl2(l) −124.2 177.8
    CH2Cl2(g) −95.4 −68.9 270.2
    CH3Cl(g) −81.9 −58.5 234.6
    CH4(g) −74.6 −50.5 186.3
    CH3COOH(l) −484.3 −389.9 159.8
    CH3OH(l) −239.2 −166.6 126.8
    CH3OH(g) −201.0 −162.3 239.9
    CH3NH2(l) −47.3 35.7 150.2
    CH3NH2(g) −22.5 32.7 242.9
    CH3CN(l) 40.6 86.5 149.6
    CH3CN(g) 74.0 91.9 243.4
    CO(g) −110.5 −137.2 197.7
    CO2(g) −393.5 −394.4 213.8
    CS2(l) 89.0 64.6 151.3
    CS2(g) 116.7 67.1 237.8
    C2H2(g) 227.4 209.9 200.9
    C2H4(g) 52.4 68.4 219.3
    C2H6(g) −84.0 −32.0 229.2
    C3H8(g) −103.8 −23.4 270.3
    C3H6O3(s) (lactic acid) −694.1 −522.9 142.3
    C6H6(l) 49.1 124.5 173.4
    C6H6(g) 82.9 129.7 269.2
    C6H12O6(s) (glucose) −1273.3 −910.4 212.1
    C2H5OH(l) −277.6 −174.8 160.7
    C2H5OH(g) −234.8 −167.9 281.6
    (CH3)2O(l) −203.3
    (CH3)2O(g) −184.1 −112.6 266.4
    CH3CO2(aq) −486.0 −369.3 86.6
    n-C12H26(l) (dodecane) −350.9 28.1 490.6
    Cesium
    Cs(s) 0.0 0.0 85.2
    Cs(g) 76.5 49.6 175.6
    CsCl(s) −443.0 −414.5 101.2
    Chlorine
    Cl(g) 121.3 105.3 165.2
    Cl2(g) 0.0 0.0 223.1
    Cl(aq) −167.2 −131.2 56.5
    HCl(g) −92.3 −95.3 186.9
    HCl(aq) −167.2 −131.2 56.5
    ClF3(g) −163.2 −123.0 281.6
    Chromium
    Cr(s) 0.0 0.0 23.8
    Cr(g) 396.6 351.8 174.5
    CrCl3(s) −556.5 −486.1 123.0
    CrO3(g) −292.9 266.2
    Cr2O3(s) −1139.7 −1058.1 81.2
    Cobalt
    Co(s) 0.0 0.0 30.0
    Co(g) 424.7 380.3 179.5
    CoCl2(s) −312.5 −269.8 109.2
    Copper
    Cu(s) 0.0 0.0 33.2
    Cu(g) 337.4 297.7 166.4
    CuCl(s) −137.2 −119.9 86.2
    CuCl2(s) −220.1 −175.7 108.1
    CuO(s) −157.3 −129.7 42.6
    Cu2O(s) −168.6 −146.0 93.1
    CuS(s) −53.1 −53.6 66.5
    Cu2S(s) −79.5 −86.2 120.9
    CuCN(s) 96.2 111.3 84.5
    Fluorine
    F(g) 79.4 62.3 158.8
    F(aq) −332.6 −278.8 −13.8
    F2(g) 0.0 0.0 202.8
    HF(g) −273.3 −275.4 173.8
    HF(aq) −332.6 −278.8 −13.8
    Hydrogen
    H(g) 218.0 203.3 114.7
    H2(g) 0.0 0.0 130.7
    H+(aq) 0.0 0.0 0.0
    Iodine
    I(g) 106.8 70.2 180.8
    I(aq) −55.2 −51.6 111.3
    I2(s) 0.0 0.0 116.1
    I2(g) 62.4 19.3 260.7
    HI(g) 26.5 1.7 206.6
    HI(aq) −55.2 −51.6 111.3
    Iron
    Fe(s) 0.0 0.0 27.3
    Fe(g) 416.3 370.7 180.5
    Fe2+(aq) −89.1 −78.9 −137.7
    Fe3+(aq) −48.5 −4.7 −315.9
    FeCl2(s) −341.8 −302.3 118.0
    FeCl3(s) −399.5 −334.0 142.3
    FeO(s) −272.0 −251.4 60.7
    Fe2O3(s) −824.2 −742.2 87.4
    Fe3O4(s) −1118.4 −1015.4 146.4
    FeS2(s) −178.2 −166.9 52.9
    FeCO3(s) −740.6 −666.7 92.9
    Lead
    Pb(s) 0.0 0.0 64.8
    Pb(g) 195.2 162.2 175.4
    PbO(s, red or litharge) −219.0 −188.9 66.5
    PbO(s, yellow or massicot) −217.3 −187.9 68.7
    PbO2(s) −277.4 −217.3 68.6
    PbCl2(s) −359.4 −314.1 136.0
    PbS(s) −100.4 −98.7 91.2
    PbSO4(s) −920.0 −813.0 148.5
    PbCO3(s) −699.1 −625.5 131.0
    Pb(NO3)2(s) −451.9
    Pb(NO3)2(aq) −416.3 −246.9 303.3
    Lithium
    Li(s) 0.0 0.0 29.1
    Li(g) 159.3 126.6 138.8
    Li+(aq) −278.5 −293.3 13.4
    LiCl(s) −408.6 −384.4 59.3
    Li2O(s) −597.9 −561.2 37.6
    Magnesium
    Mg(s) 0.0 0.0 32.7
    Mg(g) 147.1 112.5 148.6
    MgCl2(s) −641.3 −591.8 89.6
    MgO(s) −601.6 −569.3 27.0
    Mg(OH)2(s) −924.5 −833.5 63.2
    MgSO4(s) −1284.9 −1170.6 91.6
    MgS(s) −346.0 −341.8 50.3
    Manganese
    Mn(s) 0.0 0.0 32.0
    Mn(g) 280.7 238.5 173.7
    MnCl2(s) −481.3 −440.5 118.2
    MnO(s) −385.2 −362.9 59.7
    MnO2(s) −520.0 −465.1 53.1
    KMnO4(s) −837.2 −737.6 171.7
    MnO4(aq) −541.4 −447.2 191.2
    Mercury
    Hg(l) 0.0 0.0 75.9
    Hg(g) 61.4 31.8 175.0
    HgCl2(s) −224.3 −178.6 146.0
    Hg2Cl2(s) −265.4 −210.7 191.6
    HgO(s) −90.8 −58.5 70.3
    HgS(s, red) −58.2 −50.6 82.4
    Hg2(g) 108.8 68.2 288.1
    Molybdenum
    Mo(s) 0.0 0.0 28.7
    Mo(g) 658.1 612.5 182.0
    MoO2(s) −588.9 −533.0 46.3
    MoO3(s) −745.1 −668.0 77.7
    Nickel
    Ni(s) 0.0 0.0 29.9
    Ni(g) 429.7 384.5 182.2
    NiCl2(s) −305.3 −259.0 97.7
    Ni(OH)2(s) −529.7 −447.2 88.0
    Nitrogen
    N(g) 472.7 455.5 153.3
    N2(g) 0.0 0.0 191.6
    NH3(g) −45.9 −16.4 192.8
    NH4+(aq) −132.5 −79.3 113.4
    N2H4(l) 50.6 149.3 121.2
    N2H4(g) 95.4 159.4 238.5
    NH4Cl(s) −314.4 −202.9 94.6
    NH4OH(l) −361.2 −254.0 165.6
    NH4NO3(s) −365.6 −183.9 151.1
    (NH4)2SO4(s) −1180.9 −901.7 220.1
    NO(g) 91.3 87.6 210.8
    NO2(g) 33.2 51.3 240.1
    N2O(g) 81.6 103.7 220.0
    N2O4(l) −19.5 97.5 209.2
    N2O4(g) 11.1 99.8 304.4
    HNO2(g) −79.5 −46.0 254.1
    HNO3(l) −174.1 −80.7 155.6
    HNO3(g) −133.9 −73.5 266.9
    HNO3(aq) −207.4 −111.3 146.4
    NF3(g) −132.1 −90.6 260.8
    HCN(l) 108.9 125.0 112.8
    HCN(g) 135.1 124.7 201.8
    Osmium
    Os(s) 0.0 0.0 32.6
    Os(g) 791.0 745.0 192.6
    OsO4(s) −394.1 −304.9 143.9
    OsO4(g) −337.2 −292.8 293.8
    Oxygen
    O(g) 249.2 231.7 161.1
    O2(g) 0.0 0.0 205.2
    O3(g) 142.7 163.2 238.9
    OH(aq) −230.0 −157.2 −10.8
    H2O(l) −285.8 −237.1 70.0
    H2O(g) −241.8 −228.6 188.8
    H2O2(l) −187.8 −120.4 109.6
    H2O2(g) −136.3 −105.6 232.7
    Phosphorus
    P(s, white) 0.0 0.0 41.1
    P(s, red) −17.6 −17.6 −12.5 22.8
    P(s, black) −39.3
    P(g, white) 316.5 280.1 163.2
    P2(g) 144.0 103.5 218.1
    P4(g) 58.9 24.4 280.0
    PCl3(l) −319.7 −272.3 217.1
    PCl3(g) −287.0 −267.8 311.8
    POCl3(l) −597.1 −520.8 222.5
    POCl3(g) −558.5 −512.9 325.5
    PCl5(g) −374.9 −305.0 364.6
    PH3(g) 5.4 13.5 210.2
    H3PO4(s) −1284.4 −1124.3 110.5
    H3PO4(l) −1271.7 −1123.6 150.8
    Potassium
    K(s) 0.0 0.0 64.7
    K(g) 89.0 60.5 160.3
    KBr(s) −393.8 −380.7 95.9
    KCl(s) −436.5 −408.5 82.6
    KClO3(s) −397.7 −296.3 143.1
    K2O(s) −361.5 −322.1 94.1
    K2O2(s) −494.1 −425.1 102.1
    KNO2(s) −369.8 −306.6 152.1
    KNO3(s) −494.6 −394.9 133.1
    KSCN(s) −200.2 −178.3 124.3
    K2CO3(s) −1151.0 −1063.5 155.5
    K2SO4(s) −1437.8 −1321.4 175.6
    Rubidium
    Rb(s) 0.0 0.0 76.8
    Rb(g) 80.9 53.1 170.1
    RbCl(s) −435.4 −407.8 95.9
    Selenium
    Se(s, gray) 0.0 0.0 42.4
    Se(g, gray) 227.1 187.0 176.7
    H2Se(g) 29.7 15.9 219.0
    Silicon
    Si(s) 0.0 0.0 18.8
    Si(g) 450.0 405.5 168.0
    SiCl4(l) −687.0 −619.8 239.7
    SiCl4(g) −657.0 −617.0 330.7
    SiH4(g) 34.3 56.9 204.6
    SiC(s, cubic) −65.3 −62.8 16.6
    SiC(s, hexagonal) −62.8 −60.2 16.5
    Silver
    Ag(s) 0.0 0.0 42.6
    Ag(g) 284.9 246.0 173.0
    Ag+(aq) 105.6 77.1 72.7
    AgBr(s) −100.4 −96.9 107.1
    AgCl(s) −127.0 −109.8 96.3
    AgNO3(s) −124.4 −33.4 140.9
    Ag2O(s) −31.1 −11.2 121.3
    Ag2S(s) −32.6 −40.7 144.0
    Sodium
    Na(s) 0.0 0.0 51.3
    Na(g) 107.5 77.0 153.7
    Na+(aq) −240.1 −261.9 59.0
    NaF(s) −576.6 −546.3 51.1
    NaF(aq) −572.8 −540.7 45.2
    NaCl(s) −411.2 −384.1 72.1
    NaCl(aq) −407.3 −393.1 115.5
    NaBr(s) −361.1 −349.0 86.8
    NaBr(g) −143.1 −177.1 241.2
    NaBr(aq) −361.7 −365.8 141.4
    NaO2(s) −260.2 −218.4 115.9
    Na2O(s) −414.2 −375.5 75.1
    Na2O2(s) −510.9 −447.7 95.0
    NaCN(s) −87.5 −76.4 115.6
    NaNO3(aq) −447.5 −373.2 205.4
    NaNO3(s) −467.9 −367.0 116.5
    NaN3(s) 21.7 93.8 96.9
    Na2CO3(s) −1130.7 −1044.4 135.0
    Na2SO4(s) −1387.1 −1270.2 149.6
    Sulfur
    S(s, rhombic) 0.0 0.0 32.1
    S(g, rhombic) 277.2 236.7 167.8
    SO2(g) −296.8 −300.1 248.2
    SO3(g) −395.7 −371.1 256.8
    SO42−(aq) −909.3 −744.5 20.1
    SOCl2(g) −212.5 −198.3 309.8
    H2S(g) −20.6 −33.4 205.8
    H2SO4(aq) −909.3 −744.5 20.1
    Tin
    Sn(s, white) 0.0 0.0 51.2
    Sn(s, gray) −2.1 0.1 44.1
    Sn(g, white) 301.2 266.2 168.5
    SnCl4(l) −511.3 −440.1 258.6
    SnCl4(g) −471.5 −432.2 365.8
    SnO2(s) −557.6 −515.8 49.0
    Titanium
    Ti(s) 0.0 0.0 30.7
    Ti(g) 473.0 428.4 180.3
    TiCl2(s) −513.8 −464.4 87.4
    TiCl3(s) −720.9 −653.5 139.7
    TiCl4(l) −804.2 −737.2 252.3
    TiCl4(g) −763.2 −726.3 353.2
    TiO2(s) −944.0 −888.8 50.6
    Uranium
    U(s) 0.0 0.0 50.2
    U(g) 533.0 488.4 199.8
    UO2(s) −1085.0 −1031.8 77.0
    UO2(g) −465.7 −471.5 274.6
    UF4(s) −1914.2 −1823.3 151.7
    UF4(g) −1598.7 −1572.7 368.0
    UF6(s) −2197.0 −2068.5 227.6
    UF6(g) −2147.4 −2063.7 377.9
    Vanadium
    V(s) 0.0 0.0 28.9
    V(g) 514.2 754.4 182.3
    VCl3(s) −580.7 −511.2 131.0
    VCl4(l) −569.4 −503.7 255.0
    VCl4(g) −525.5 −492.0 362.4
    V2O5(s) −1550.6 −1419.5 131.0
    Zinc
    Zn(s) 0.0 0.0 41.6
    Zn(g) 130.4 94.8 161.0
    ZnCl2(s) −415.1 −369.4 111.5
    Zn(NO3)2(s) −483.7
    ZnS(s, sphalerite) −206.0 −201.3 57.7
    ZnSO4(s) −982.8 −871.5 110.5
    Zirconium
    Zr(s) 0.0 0.0 39.0
    Zr(g) 608.8 566.5 181.4
    ZrCl2(s) −502.0 −386 110
    ZrCl4(s) −980.5 −889.9 181.6