Skip to main content
Chemistry LibreTexts

S1: Solvent Properties

  • Page ID
    15012
  • The following table lists common solvents and their properties.

    Solvent Formula FW (g/mol)

    boiling point (°C)

    melting point (°C) Density Solubility in water (g/100 mL) Dielectric constant Dipole moment (debye) Flash point (°C)
    acetic acid C2H4O2 60.05 118 16.7 1.049 Miscible 6.15 1.74 39
    acetic anhydride C4H6O3 102.09 149.6 -73.1 1.082 Reacts 21 2.8 49
    acetone C3H6O 58.08 56.3 -94.3 0.788 Miscible 20.7 2.69 -18
    acetonitrile C2H3N 41.05 81.6 -46 0.786 Miscible 37.5 3.92 6
    ammonia NH3 17.03 -33.38 -77.7 0.725 Miscible 26.7 1.47 flammable gas
    aniline C6H7N 93.13 184.4 -6.3 1.022 3.6 6.89 1.76  
    benzene C6H6 78.11 80.1 5.5 0.879 0.18 2.28 0 -11
    benzyl alcohol C7H8O 108.14 205.2 -15.3 1.042 4 13.1 1.71 94
    bromine Br2 159.81 59.5 -7.25 3.12 3.5 3.1 0 non flammable
    bromoform CHBr3 252.73 149.6 8.3 2.89 0.3 4.39 0.99 non flammable
    1-butanol C4H10O 74.12 117.6 -89.5 0.81 6.3 17.8 1.66 35
    2-butanol C4H10O 74.12 98 -115 0.808 15 15.8 1.8 26
    2-butanone C4H8O 72.11 79.6 -86.3 0.805 25.6 18.5 2.78 -7
    iso-butyl alcohol C4H10O 74.12 107.7 -108 0.798 10 17.9 1.79 28
    tert-butyl alcohol C4H10O 74.12 82.2 25.5 0.786 Miscible 12.5 1.66 11
    carbon disulfide CS2 76.14 46.26 -111.5 1.257 0.29 2.6 0 -30
    carbon tetrachloride CCl4 153.82 76.7 -22.4 1.594 0.08 2.24 0 non flammable
    chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 112.56 131.7 -45.6 1.1066 0.05 2.71 1.69 29
    chloroform CHCl3 119.38 61.7 -63.7 1.498 0.795 4.81 1.04 non flammable
    cyclohexane C6H12 84.16 80.7 6.6 0.779 <0.1 2.02 0 -20
    cyclohexanone C6H10O 98.15 155.7 -37.9 0.942 2.4 15 2.9 44
    o-dichlorobenzene C6H4Cl2 147.01 180.5 -17 1.31 0 9.8 2.27 66
    1,2-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 98.96 83.5 -35.3 1.245 0.861 10.42 2.06 13
    dichloromethane CH2Cl2 84.93 39.8 -96.7 1.326 1.32 9.08 1.60 1.6
    diethyl ether C4H10O 74.12 34.6 -116.3 0.713 7.5 4.34 1.15 -45
    diethylene glycol C4H10O3 106.12 245 -10 1.118 10 31.7 2.31 143
    diglyme C6H14O3 134.17 162 -68 0.943 Miscible 7.23 1.97 67
    diisopropyl ether C6H14O 102.18 68.3 -85.4 0.724 0.2 3.8 1.3 -28
    diisopropylethyl amine C8H19N 129.95 127 -50 0.742 Miscible     10.5
    DME C4H10O2 90.12 85 -58 0.868 Miscible 7.2 1.71 -6
    dimethylether C2H6O 46.07 -22 -138.5 N/A N/A N/A 1.30 -41
    DMF C3H7NO 73.09 153 -61 0.944 Miscible 36.7 3.86 58
    dimethyl sulfate C2H6SO4 126.13 188 -31.8 1.332 Reacts     83.3
    DMSO C2H6OS 78.13 189 18.4 1.092 Miscible 47 3.96 95
    dioxane C4H8O2 88.11 101.1 11.8 1.033 Miscible 2.21 2.06 12
    ethanol C2H6O 46.07 78.5 -114.1 0.789 Miscible 24.6 1.66 13
    ethyl acetate C4H8O2 88.11 77 -83.6 0.895 8.7 6 1.78 -4
    ethylene glycol C2H6O2 62.07 195 -13 1.115 Miscible 37.7 2.36 111
    formamide CH3NO 45.04 210.5 2.55 1.134 Miscible 111 3.37 154
    formic acid CH2O2 46.03 100.7 8.3 1.213 Miscible 58.5 1.4 1.8
    glycerol C3H8O3 92.09 290 17.8 1.261 Miscible 42.5 2.56 160
    heptane C7H16 100.2 98.4 -90.7 0.684 0.01 1.92 0 -4
    HMPA C6H18N3OP 179.2 232.5 7.2 1.03 Miscible 31.3 5.54 105
    HMPT C6H18N3P 163.2 150 -44 0.898 Miscible     26
    hexane C6H14 86.18 69 -95 0.659 0.014 1.89 0.085 -22
    hydrazine N2H4 32.05 113.5 1.6 1.004 Miscible 51.7 1.9 52
    hydrogen peroxide H2O2 34.01 150.2 -0.4 1.443 Miscible 89 2.01 non flammable
    iodomethane CH3I 141.94 42.5 -66.5 2.28 1.4   1.6 -28
    methanol CH4O 32.04 64.6 -98 0.791 Miscible 32.6 2.87 12
    MTBE C5H12O 88.15 55.2 -109 0.741 4.8 2.6 1.32 -28
    methylformamide C2H5NO 59.07 182 -4 0.999 Miscible 182.4 3.8 111
    NMP C5H9NO 99.13 202 -24 1.033 10 32 4.1 91
    nitrobenzene C6H5NO2 123.11 210.8 5.8 1.199 0.19 34.8 4.3 87
    nitromethane CH3NO2 61.04 101.2 -29 1.382 9.5 35.9 3.56 35
    oxalyl chloride C2O2Cl2 126.93 63 -12 1.48 Reacts     >100
    pentane C5H12 72.15 36.1 -129.7 0.626 0.04 1.84 0 -49
    petroleum ether -- -- 30-60 -40 0.656 -- --   -30
    1-propanol C3H8O 88.15 97 -126 0.803 Miscible 20.1 1.55 15
    2-propanol C3H8O 88.15 82.4 -88.5 0.785 Miscible 18.3 1.58 12
    pyridine C5H5N 79.1 115.2 -41.6 0.982 Miscible 12.3 2.37 17
    THF C4H8O 72.11 66 -108.4 0.886 30 7.6 1.75 -21
    thionyl chloride SOCl2 118.97 78.8 -105 1.64 Reacts   1.4 non flammable
    toluene C7H8 92.14 110.6 -93 0.867 0.05 2.38 0.375 4
    triethyl amine C6H15N 101.19 88.9 -114.7 0.728 0.02 2.4 0.66 -11
    trifluoroacetic acid C2HO2F3 114.02 72.4 -15.4 1.48 Miscible 42.1   -3
    trimethylsilyl chloride C3H9SiCl 108.64 57 -58 0.856 Reacts     -18
    water H2O 18.02 100 0 0.998 Miscible 78.54 1.84 non flammable
    water, heavy D2O 20.03 101.3 4 1.107 Miscible ??   non flammable
    o-xylene C8H10 106.17 144 -25.2 0.897 Insoluble 2.57 0.64 32
    m-xylene C8H10 106.17 139.1 -47.8 0.868 Insoluble 2.37   27
    p-xylene C8H10 106.17 138.4 13.3 0.861 Insoluble 2.27   27

    Contributors