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Chemistry LibreTexts

Case Studies

  • Blood Glucose Test
    Blood glucose levels are now measured by a procedure based upon the enzyme glucose oxidase. Since an enzyme is used, it is very specific for only D-glucose, and will not be subject to interferences from other molecules in the blood.
  • Starch and Iodine
    Plants store glucose as the polysaccharide starch; the cereal grains (wheat, rice, corn, oats, barley) as well as tubers such as potatoes are also rich in starch. Starch can be separated into two fractions--amylose and amylopectin. Natural starches are mixtures of amylose (10-20%) and amylopectin (80-90%).
  • Sugar and Teeth
    Sugar, saliva, and bacteria lead to a formidable combination that may lead to tooth decay. After eating sugar, particularly sucrose, and even within minutes of brushing your teeth, sticky glycoproteins (combination of carbohydrate and protein molecule) adhere to the teeth to start the formation of plaque. At the same time millions of bacteria known as Streptococcus mutans also adhere to the glycoprotein. Although, many oral bacteria also adhere, only the S. mutans is able to cause cavities.