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Chemistry LibreTexts

Vocabulary I

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  • The assignment is to define and build a comprehensive list of the Key Vocabulary Terms, which are pertinent to and used in Chem 106. This is an ongoing, expanding list and will be added to throughout the course. Phase I is complete. 

    1. Absolute Zero: Point when atoms stop moving at zero Kelvin. 
    2. Accuracy: Darts on a dartboard hitting a target.
    3. Active Ingredient: An ingredient in a pharmaceutical compound that has a direct effect on the biology of the user. The active ingredient is usually combined with inactive ingredients that serve as a carrier for the active ingredient.
    4. Alpha particle: an ionized helium atom containing two protons, two neutrons, and no electrons. 
    5. Anion: A negatively charged atom. It has more electrons than protons.
    6. Atom: Collection of protons and neutrons along with certain amounts of electrons. 
    7. Atomic Mass: The mass of an atom (element), which is the average of natural isotopic masses for the atom. It is measured in atomic mass units. 
    8. Atomic Number: Number of positive charges or protons in the nucleus of an atom in any given element.
    9. Avogadro's number: The number of atoms or molecules found in 1 mole of a substance. Mole is a term only used in chemistry and it is written out as 6.0221415 X 1023.
    10. Beta particle: aka beta ray, A high-speed electron or positron emitted during the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus. For example, a potassium-40 nucleus gives off beta particles as it decays.
    11. Biomimetics: Relating to or denoting synthetic methods that mimic natural biological processes.  
    12. Boiling point: The temperature at which a liquid begins to change into a gas. 
    13. Buoyancy: Ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object partially immersed in it.
    14. Cation: A positive ion
    15. Chemistry: The science that is concerned with the composition, properties, and structure of matter and with the ways in which substances can change from one form to another.  
    16. Compound: A substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together.
    17. Condensation: The process of converting a gas or vapor to a liquid.
    18. Density: The degree of consistency of an object/person/element calculated by dividing the mass by the volume.
    19. Distillation: The action of purifying a liquid by a process of heating to form a vapor and cooling the vapor.
    20. Electron Configuration: the designation of the quantum designations of each electron in an atom.
    21. Electrons: Negatively charged subatomic particles with a very small mass.
    22. Empirical formula: Formula that shows the ratio of elements present in a compound.
    23. Extensive: A property that changes when the size of the sample changes. ex: Mass, Volume, Length, and total charge.
    24. Filtration: the action or process of filtering something
    25. Fission: an exothermic reaction which involves the splitting of a nucleus that releases free neutrons and lighter nuclei
    26. Fusion: The combining of nuclei to form a bigger and heavier nucleus.
    27. Gamma radiation: another name for gamma rays 
    28. Heterogeneous Mixture: Mixture in which different materials can easily be distinguished.
    29. Homogenous mixture: A mixture that is made up of visibly different substances or phases. Also known as a solution.
    30. Intensive: property opposite of an extensive property, it does not change with the size of a sample.
    31. Ion: is an atom in which the total number of electrons does not equal the number of protons
    32. Ionic bond: the force of attraction between opposite charges.
    33. Isoelectronic: atoms with the same amount of electrons.
    34. Isotope: A variation of an element. They have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. 
    35. Macroscopic: Things that are visible to the naked eye.
    36. Mass: The amount of matter an object (or living thing) contains. 
    37. Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space.
    38. Metacognition: understanding one's own thought processes.
    39. Microscopic: Objects that require magnification, because they are NOT visible to the naked eye.
    40. Molar Mass: the molar mass is the atomic (molecular) mass of an element or the chemical compound expressed in grams. The base SI unit for molar mass is kg/mol. However, for historical reasons, molar masses are expressed in g/mol.
    41. Mole: SI unit that measures the number of particles in a substance.
    42. Molecule: group of atoms bonded together, this is the smallest unit of a chemical compound which can be found in a chemical reaction.
    43. Neutron: Particles in a atom with no charge and a mass equal to a proton.
    44. Nucleus:  A small, dense region of an atom consisting of protons and neutrons.
    45. Precision: The closeness of results or measurements to each other.
    46. Proton: A very small particle of matter that is part of the nucleus of an atom and that has a positive charge and an atomic mass of 1.
    47. Qualitative: The observation or gathering of information about a given subject or reaction without measuring.
    48. Quantitative: Using scientific, computational techniques, or data obtained from measurements of quantities, structures, and elements of material in the pursuit of studying the matter.
    49. Radiation: The discharge of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles.
    50. Scientific Law:  A statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspects of the universe. These laws are based on summaries of many observations and gravity observations are well known and predictable and more than one theory may explain the observations.
    51. Solubility: The property of a solid, liquid, or gas to dissolve in a solvent
    52. Solute: The dissolved substance in a solution.
    53. Solvent: The substance that is dissolving the solute in a solution. 
    54. Subatomic: Used to describe something smaller than the size of an atom.
    55. Volume: The amount of space that a substance or object occupies.