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2: Bonding in Molecules

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    • 2.1: What is a chemical bond
      The chemical bonds connect the atoms in the compounds. Transferring or sharing some valance electrons from one atom to another makes the bonds. Intermolecular forces are kind of bonds through which molecules interact with each other using transient or permanent dipoles.
    • 2.2: Two Types of Bonding
      Atoms have a tendency to have eight electrons in their valence shell. The attraction of oppositely charged ions is what makes ionic bonds.
    • 2.3: Ions
      Ions can be positively charged or negatively charged. A Lewis diagram is used to show how electrons are transferred to make ions and ionic compounds.
    • 2.4: Covalent Bonds
      You have already seen examples of substances that contain covalent bonds. One substance mentioned previously was water (H₂O). You can tell from its formula that it is not an ionic compound; it is not composed of a metal and a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those of ionic compounds. A covalent bond is formed between two atoms by sharing electrons.
    • 2.5: Representing organic compounds
      Organic molecules contain chains and rings of carbons with single, double, or triple bonds connecting the carbons. As described in this chapter, the organic molecules are represented in multiple ways, including Lewis, condensed, and skeletal formulae.
    • 2.6: Intermolecular Interactions
      A phase is a form of matter that has the same physical properties throughout. Molecules interact with each other through various forces: ionic and covalent bonds, dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion forces.
    • 2.7: Masses of Atoms and Molecules
      The atomic mass unit (u) is a unit that describes the masses of individual atoms and molecules. The atomic mass is the weighted average of the masses of all isotopes of an element. The molecular mass is the sum of the masses of the atoms in a molecule.
    • 2.E: Ionic Bonding and Simple Ionic Compounds (Exercises)
      These are homework exercises to accompany Chapter 3 of the Ball et al. "The Basics of GOB Chemistry" Textmap.

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