# Chapter 8: Properties of Solutions

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• 8.1: Concentrations of Solutions
There are several ways to express the amount of solute present in a solution. The concentration of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute that has been dissolved in a given amount of solvent or solution. A concentrated solution is one that has a relatively large amount of dissolved solute. A dilute solution is one that has a relatively small amount of dissolved solute. However, these terms are relative, and we need to be able to express concentration in a more exact, quantitative manner
• 8.2: Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical equilibrium can be attained whether the reaction begins with all reactants and no products, all products and no reactants, or some of both. It may be tempting to think that once equilibrium has been reached, the reaction stops. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process. The forward and reverse reactions continue to occur even after equilibrium has been reached. Because the rates of the reactions are the same, there is no change in the relative concentrations of reactants and products.
• 8.3: Le Châtelier's Principle
The description of how a system responds to a stress to equilibrium has become known as Le Châtelier's principle: When a chemical system that is at equilibrium is disturbed by a stress, the system will respond in order to relieve the stress. Stresses to a chemical system involve changes in the concentrations of reactants or products, changes in the temperature of the system, or changes in the pressure of the system.
• 8.4: Osmosis and Diffusion
Fish cells, like all cells, have semipermeable membranes. Eventually, the concentration of "stuff" on either side of them will even out. A fish that lives in salt water will have somewhat salty water inside itself. Put it in freshwater, and the freshwater will, through osmosis, enter the fish, causing its cells to swell, and the fish will die. What will happen to a freshwater fish in the ocean?
• 8.5: Acid-Base Definitions
The Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius (1859 - 1927) was the first to propose a theory to explain the observed behavior of acids and bases. Because of their ability to conduct a current, he knew that both acids and bases contained ions in solution. An Arrhenius acid is a compound which ionizes to yield hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution. An Arrhenius base is a compound which ionizes to yield hydroxide ions (OH−) in aqueous solution.
• 8.6: The pH Concept
Expressing the acidity of a solution by using the molarity of the hydrogen ion is cumbersome because the quantities are generally very small. Danish scientist Søren Sørensen (1868 - 1939) proposed an easier system for indicating the concentration of H+ called the pH scale. The letters pH stand for the power of the hydrogen ion. The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration.
• 8.E: Properties of Solutions (Exercises)
These are homework exercises to accompany Chapter 8 of the University of Kentucky's LibreText for CHE 103 - Chemistry for Allied Health. Solutions are available below the questions.

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