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Chemistry LibreTexts

1: Review

  • Page ID
    401658
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    • 1.1: The Structure of Atoms
      Atoms are composed of three main subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons are grouped together in the nucleus of an atom, while electrons orbit about the nucleus.
    • 1.2: Nuclei of Atoms
      Elements can be identified by their atomic number and mass number. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different masses.
    • 1.3: Lewis Symbols and Structures
      Valence electronic structures can be visualized by drawing Lewis symbols (for atoms and monatomic ions) and Lewis structures (for molecules and polyatomic ions). Lone pairs, unpaired electrons, and single, double, or triple bonds are used to indicate where the valence electrons are located around each atom in a Lewis structure. Most structures—especially those containing second row elements—obey the octet rule, in which every atom (except H) is surrounded by eight electrons.
    • 1.4: Formal Charges and Resonance
      In a Lewis structure, formal charges can be assigned to each atom by treating each bond as if one-half of the electrons are assigned to each atom. These hypothetical formal charges are a guide to determining the most appropriate Lewis structure. A structure in which the formal charges are as close to zero as possible is preferred. Resonance occurs in cases where two or more Lewis structures with identical arrangements of atoms but different distributions of electrons can be written.
    • 1.5: Molecular Structure and Polarity
      VSEPR theory predicts the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule. It states that valence electrons will assume an electron-pair geometry that minimizes repulsions between areas of high electron density (bonds and/or lone pairs). Molecular structure, which refers only to the placement of atoms in a molecule and not the electrons, is equivalent to electron-pair geometry only when there are no lone electron pairs around the central atom.


    1: Review is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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