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14.E: Homework Chapter 14 Answers

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    202234
  • Dilutions with Strong Acids and Strong Bases:

    1. V1 = 350. mL of the strong acid will be needed to neutralize the strong base!

    3. V1 = 48.0 mL of the strong acid will be needed to neutralize the strong base!

    Neutralization Reactions:

    5.

    a.) NaOH(aq) + HI(aq) → H2O(l) + NaI(aq)

    b.) KOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → H2O(l) + KCl(aq)

    c.) RbOH(aq) + HBr(aq) → H2O(l) + RbBr(aq)

    d.) Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2HClO4(aq) → 2H2O(l) + Ba(ClO4)2(aq) 

    7. For the following pairs, write their neutralization reaction.

    a.) Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2H2O(l) + CaCl2(aq)

    b.) 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq)

    c.) Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) → 2H2O(l) + Ba(NO3)2(aq)

    d.) CsOH(aq) + HBr(aq) → H2O(l) + CsBr(aq)

    9.

    a.) Ca(s) + 2HCl(aq) → H2(g) + CaCl2(aq)

    b.) 2Li(s) + 2HCl(aq) → H2(g) + 2LiCl(aq)

    c.) 2K(s) + 2HCl(aq) → H2(g) + 2KCl(aq)

    d.) Ba(s) + 2HCl(aq) → H2(g) + BaCl2(aq)

    Strong Acids and Bases vs. Weak Acids and Bases:

    11. a.) WEAK   b.) STRONG   c.) WEAK   d.) STRONG

    13.   a.) STRONG   b.) STRONG   c.) WEAK   c.) WEAK

    15.

    a.) [H3O+] = less than 12.0 M

    b.) [H3O+] = 0.010 M

    c.) [H3O+] = less than 1.50 M

    d.) [H3O+] = 4.30 M

    17.

    a.) [OH-] = 1.00 M

    b.) [OH-] = less than 4.50 M

    c.) [OH-] = 1.50 M

    d.) [OH-] = 2.30 M

    19.

    a.) [OH-] = 1.00 M

    b.) [OH-] = 3.06 M

    c.) [OH-] = 14.0 M

    d.) [OH-] = less than 0.00000010 M

    BrØnsted-Lowry/Arrhenius Acids and Bases:

    21. The base (LiOH) acts as an Arrhenius base because OH- was produced.

    23. The base (NH3) is acting as a BrØnsted-Lowry base because it accepted a proton. It started as NH3, and then became NH4+.

    25.

    a.) Acid,  H2SO4(aq) → H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq)

    b.) Base, NaOH(aq) → Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)

    c.) Acid, CH3COOH(aq) → H+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq)

    d.) Base, Ca(OH)2(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

    27.

    a.) Acid, HCl(aq) → H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

    b.) Acid, HClO4(aq) → H+(aq) + ClO4-(aq)

    c.) Acid, CH2O2(aq) → H+(aq) + CHO2-(aq)

    d.) Base, KOH(aq) → K+(aq) + OH-(aq)

    BrØnsted-Lowry Acids/Bases & Conjugate Acids/Bases:

     

    Text Box: **Remember: Some substances can act as both an acid and a base depending on the reaction. H2O is a very common substance to have this trait. They are called: amphoteric substances**

     

     

     

     

    29.

    a.) HCN: B-Acid; H2O: B-Base

    b.) NH3: B-Base; H2O: B-Acid

    c.) F-: B-Bases; H2O: B-Acid

    d.) H2CO3: B-Acid; H2O: B-Base

    31.

    a) HF: B-Acid; OH-: B-Base; F-: C-Base; H2O: C-Acid

    b.) H3PO4: B-Acid; OH-: B-Base; H2PO4-: C-Base; H2O: C-Acid

    c.) HCl: B-Acid; H2O: B-Base; H3O+: C-Acid; Cl-: C-Base

    d.) CH3COOH: B-Acid; H2O: C-Base; H3O+: C-Acid; CH3COO-: C-Base

    33.

    a.) Yes, this is a conjugate acid-base pair

    b.) No, this is not a conjugate acid-base pair

    c.) Yes, this is a conjugate acid-base pair

    d.) Yes, this is a conjugate acid-base pair

    35. For the following pairs, state whether they are or not conjugate acid-base pairs.

    a.) Yes, this is a conjugate acid-base pair

    b.) No, this is not a conjugate acid-base pair

    c.) Yes, this is a conjugate acid-base pair

    d.) No, this is not a conjugate acid-base pair

    37.  a.)    CNO-   b.)   F-   c.) HS-   d.) IO3-

    39.   a.) HCO3-   b.) H3PO4   c.) HSO4-   d.) HClO4

    41.    a.) H2C2O4   b.) HPO42-   c.) CH3COOH   d.) H2C2COOH

    pH & pOH Calculations/Acidic vs. Basic Solutions:

    43. a.) Basic   b.) Acidic   c.) Neutral   d.) Basic

    45. a.) Basic   b.) Acidic   c.) Basic   d.) AcidicText Box: Remember:
[H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x10-14

    47.

    a.) 1.0 x10-6 M

    b.) 4.0 x10-5 M

    c.) 6.7 x10-3 M

    d.) 1.0 x10-9 M

    Text Box: **Remember: the solution is not neutral unless the pH is exactly 7.00 **

     

     

     

    49. A pH of 7 is a neutral solution, which means that there is the same amount of acid and base in the solution.

    51. 8   9   10   11   12   13   14

     

    53. a.) Acidic    b.) Acidic    c.)  Neutral     d.) Basic

    Text Box: Remember: pH = -log [H3O+]55. a.) 10.00    b.) 7.57    c.) 5.00   d.) 8.52

     

     

     

    Text Box: ** Remember: the hydronium concentration for strong acids is equivalent to the strong acid concentration! **

     

    57. a.) 5.00    b.) 1.46   c.) 3.70   d.) 4.40

     

    Text Box: ** Remember: ** pOH = -log [OH-]

     

    59. a.) 9.82    b.) 6.46    c.) 14.10    d.) 3.70

     

    Text Box: **Remember: ** [H3O+] = 10-pH

     

    61. a.) 0.032 M    b.) 1.0 x10-4 M   c.) 3.2 x10-7 M   d.) 1.3 x10-4 M

    63. From the following pH values, determine the hydronium concentration.

    a.) 1.5 x10-6 M    b.) 6.2 x10-5 M   c.) 0.66 M   d.) 0.010 M

     

    Text Box: ** Remember: ** [OH-] = 10-pOH

     

    65. a.) 1.0 x10-11 M   b.) 4.8 x10-10 M   c.) 1.0 x10-8 M   d.) 1.0 x10-14 M

    Text Box: ** Remember: **
pH = 14.00 – pOH
pOH = 14.00 – pH

     

     

     

    67.

    a.)  pOH = -log (1.0 x10-8) = 8.00       pH = 14.00 – 8.00 = 6.00

    b.) pOH = -log (2.5 x10-10) = 9.60      pH = 14.00 – 9.60 = 4.40

    c.) pOH = -log (4.0 x10-9) = 8.40        pH = 14.00 – 8.40 = 5.60

    d.) pOH = -log (3.8 x10-5) = 4.42         pH = 14.00 – 4.42 = 9.58

    69. a.) pH = -log (0.0010) = 3.00

    b.) pOH = -log (0.020) = 1.70    ;    pH = 14.00 – 1.70 = 12.30

    c.) pH = -log (0.0030) = 2.52

    d.) pH = -log (0.0040) = 2.40

    71. a.) pH = -log (0.00321) = 2.49

    b.) pOH = -log (0.0193) = 1.71    ;     pH = 14.00 – 1.71 = 12.29

    c.) pH = -log (0.000483) = 3.32

    d.) pOH = -log (0.148) = 0.83       ;     pH = 14.00 – 0.83 = 13.17

    73. pH = 14.00 – 6.30 = 7.70 ; Basic

    b.) pH = 14.00 – 3.98 = 10.02 ; Basic

    c.)  pH = 14.00 – 12.74 = 1.26 ; Acidic

    d.)  pH = 14.00 – 8.29 = 5.71 ; Acidic

    75. d.) pH = 12.83

    76. a.) pH = 1.89

    77. c.) pOH = 1.54

    Cumulative/Challenge Problems:

    79. [NaOH] = 0.0300 M

    The concentration of the strong base is greater than the concentration of the strong acid, which indicates that the solution may be basic.

    81. pH = -log (1.0 x10-11) = 11.00

    pOH = 14.00 – 11.00 = 3.00 ; The solution is basic.

    83. According to the BrØnsted-Lowry definitions of acids and bases, acids are proton (hydrogen ion) donors while bases are proton acceptors. With this information, we know that all acids must have a hydrogen ion to give away, while all bases only have to be able to accept a hydrogen ion. They do not necessarily have to have a hydroxide ion to do this. If the base does have a hydroxide ion, then the hydrogen ion accepted will form water with the hydroxide ion present.