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Chemistry LibreTexts

5: Ions

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    • 5.1: Ions - Losing and Gaining Electrons
      Atom may lose valence electrons quite to obtain a lower shell that contains an octet. Atoms that lose electrons acquire a positive charge as a result because they are left with fewer negatively charged electrons to balance the positive charges of the protons in the nucleus. Positively charged ions are called cations. Most metals become cations when they make ionic compounds.
    • 5.2: Sugar and Salt
      Both salt and sugar have radically different properties (both physical and chemical) than the constituent elements that make up these compounds. That is a central feature of chemical reactions as this chapter will discuss.
    • 5.3: Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
      Formulas for ionic compounds contain the symbols and number of each atom present in a compound in the lowest whole number ratio.
    • 5.4: Naming Inorganic Compounds
      The composition of a compound is represented by an empirical or molecular formula, each consisting of at least one formula unit. Covalent inorganic compounds are named using a procedure similar to that used for ionic compounds, whereas hydrocarbons use a system based on the number of bonds between carbon atoms. Covalent inorganic compounds are named by a procedure similar to that used for ionic compounds, using prefixes to indicate the numbers of atoms in the molecular formula.
    • 5.5: Naming Ionic Compounds
      Ionic compounds are named by stating the cation first, followed by the anion. Positive and negative charges must balance. Some anions have multiple forms and are named accordingly with the use of roman numerals in parenthes. Ternary compounds are composed of three or more elements.
    • 5.6: Naming Acids
      An acid can be defined in several ways. The most straightforward definition is that an acid is a molecular compound that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.