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9.8: The Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Kinetics

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  • Enzymes are generally globular proteins, acting alone or in larger complexes. Like all proteins, enzymes are linear chains of amino acids that fold to produce a three-dimensional structure. The sequence of the amino acids specifies the structure which in turn determines the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Although structure determines function, a novel enzyme's activity cannot yet be predicted from its structure alone. Enzyme structures unfold (denature) when heated or exposed to chemical denaturants and this disruption to the structure typically causes a loss of activity.

    Protein folding is key to whether a globular protein or a membrane protein can do its job correctly. It must be folded into the right shape to function. But hydrogen bonds, which play a big part in folding, are rather weak, and it does not take much heat, acidity, or other stress to break some and form others, denaturing the protein. This is one reason why tight homeostasis is physiologically necessary in many life forms.


    Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat. If proteins in a living cell are denatured, this results in disruption of cell activity and possibly cell death. Denatured proteins can exhibit a wide range of characteristics, from conformational change and loss of solubility to aggregation due to the exposure of hydrophobic groups.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Enzyme activity initially increases with temperature until the enzyme's structure unfolds (denaturation), leading to an optimal rate of reaction at an intermediate temperature. Image used with permission (CC-BY-SA-4.0; Thomas Shafee)
    Enzyme denaturation is normally linked to temperatures above a species' normal level; as a result, enzymes from bacteria living in volcanic environments such as hot springs are prized by industrial users for their ability to function at high temperatures, allowing enzyme-catalyzed reactions to be operated at a very high rate.


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