# 7.1: Temperature and Pressure

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Skills to Develop

- Define the property of temperature and pressure
- Define and convert among the units of temperature and pressure
- Describe the operation of common tools for measuring gas pressure

## Temperature

*Video ***\(\PageIndex{1}\): **An introduction to temperature in terms of the Ideal Gas Law, which we will cover later in this Unit.

Temperature is an intensive property. The SI unit of temperature is the kelvin (K). The IUPAC convention is to use kelvin (all lowercase) for the word, K (uppercase) for the unit symbol, and neither the word “degree” nor the degree symbol (°). The degree Celsius (°C) is also allowed in the SI system, with both the word “degree” and the degree symbol used for Celsius measurements. Celsius degrees are the same magnitude as those of kelvin, but the two scales place their zeros in different places. Water freezes at 273.15 K (0 °C) and boils at 373.15 K (100 °C) by definition, and normal human body temperature is approximately 310 K (37 °C).

## Conversion of Temperature Units

We use the word temperature to refer to the hotness or coldness of a substance. One way we measure a change in temperature is to use the fact that most substances expand when their temperature increases and contract when their temperature decreases. The mercury or alcohol in a common glass thermometer changes its volume as the temperature changes. Because the volume of the liquid changes more than the volume of the glass, we can see the liquid expand when it gets warmer and contract when it gets cooler.

To mark a scale on a thermometer, we need a set of reference values: Two of the most commonly used are the freezing and boiling temperatures of water at a specified atmospheric pressure. On the Celsius scale, 0 °C is defined as the freezing temperature of water and 100 °C as the boiling temperature of water. The space between the two temperatures is divided into 100 equal intervals, which we call degrees. On the Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point of water is defined as 32 °F and the boiling temperature as 212 °F. The space between these two points on a Fahrenheit thermometer is divided into 180 equal parts (degrees).

Defining the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales as described in the previous paragraph results in a slightly more complex relationship between temperature values on these two scales than for different units of measure for other properties. Most measurement units for a given property are directly proportional to one another (y = mx). Using familiar length units as one example:

\[\mathrm{length\: in\: feet=\left(\dfrac{1\: ft}{12\: in.}\right)\times length\: in\: inches}\]

where

- y = length in feet,
- x = length in inches, and
- the proportionality constant, m, is the conversion factor.

The Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, however, do not share a common zero point, and so the relationship between these two scales is a linear one rather than a proportional one (\(y = mx + b\)). Consequently, converting a temperature from one of these scales into the other requires more than simple multiplication by a conversion factor, m, it also must take into account differences in the scales’ zero points (\(b\)).

The linear equation relating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures is easily derived from the two temperatures used to define each scale. Representing the Celsius temperature as \(x\) and the Fahrenheit temperature as \(y\), the slope, \(m\), is computed to be:

\[\begin{align} m &=\dfrac{\Delta y}{\Delta x} \\[5pt] &= \mathrm{\dfrac{212\: ^\circ F - 32\: ^\circ F}{100\: ^\circ C-0\: ^\circ C}} \\[5pt] &= \mathrm{\dfrac{180\: ^\circ F}{100\: ^\circ C}} \\[5pt] &= \mathrm{\dfrac{9\: ^\circ F}{5\: ^\circ C} }\end{align} \]

The y-intercept of the equation, *b*, is then calculated using either of the equivalent temperature pairs, (100 °C, 212 °F) or (0 °C, 32 °F), as:

\[\begin{align} b&=y-mx \\[5pt] &= \mathrm{32\:^\circ F-\dfrac{9\:^\circ F}{5\:^\circ C}\times0\:^\circ C} \\[5pt] &= \mathrm{32\:^\circ F} \end{align} \]

The equation relating the temperature scales is then:

\[\mathrm{\mathit{T}_{^\circ F}=\left(\dfrac{9\:^\circ F}{5\:^\circ C}\times \mathit{T}_{^\circ C}\right)+32\:^\circ C}\]

An abbreviated form of this equation that omits the measurement units is:

\[\mathrm{\mathit{T}_{^\circ F}=\dfrac{9}{5}\times \mathit{T}_{^\circ C}+32}\]

Rearrangement of this equation yields the form useful for converting from Fahrenheit to Celsius:

\[\mathrm{\mathit{T}_{^\circ C}=\dfrac{5}{9}(\mathit{T}_{^\circ F}+32)}\]

As mentioned earlier in this chapter, the SI unit of temperature is the kelvin (K). Unlike the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales, the kelvin scale is an absolute temperature scale in which 0 (zero) K corresponds to the lowest temperature that can theoretically be achieved. The early 19th-century discovery of the relationship between a gas's volume and temperature suggested that the volume of a gas would be zero at −273.15 °C. In 1848, British physicist William Thompson, who later adopted the title of Lord Kelvin, proposed an absolute temperature scale based on this concept (further treatment of this topic is provided in this text’s chapter on gases).

The freezing temperature of water on this scale is 273.15 K and its boiling temperature 373.15 K. Notice the numerical difference in these two reference temperatures is 100, the same as for the Celsius scale, and so the linear relation between these two temperature scales will exhibit a slope of \(\mathrm{1\:\dfrac{K}{^\circ\:C}}\). Following the same approach, the equations for converting between the kelvin and Celsius temperature scales are derived to be:

\[T_{\ce K}=T_{\mathrm{^\circ C}}+273.15\]

\[T_\mathrm{^\circ C}=T_{\ce K}-273.15\]

The 273.15 in these equations has been determined experimentally, so it is not exact. Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) shows the relationship among the three temperature scales. Recall that we do not use the degree sign with temperatures on the kelvin scale.

**Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): **The Fahrenheit, Celsius, and kelvin temperature scales are compared.

Although the kelvin (absolute) temperature scale is the official SI temperature scale, Celsius is commonly used in many scientific contexts and is the scale of choice for nonscience contexts in almost all areas of the world. Very few countries (the U.S. and its territories, the Bahamas, Belize, Cayman Islands, and Palau) still use Fahrenheit for weather, medicine, and cooking.

Example \(\PageIndex{1}\): Conversion from Celsius

Normal body temperature has been commonly accepted as 37.0 °C (although it varies depending on time of day and method of measurement, as well as among individuals). What is this temperature on the kelvin scale and on the Fahrenheit scale?

**Solution**

\[\mathrm{K= {^\circ C}+273.15=37.0+273.2=310.2\: K} \nonumber \]

\[\mathrm{^\circ F=\dfrac{9}{5}\:{^\circ C}+32.0=\left(\dfrac{9}{5}\times 37.0\right)+32.0=66.6+32.0=98.6\: ^\circ F} \nonumber \]

Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

Convert 80.92 °C to K and °F.

**Answer**-
354.07 K, 177.7 °F

Example \(\PageIndex{2}\): Conversion from Fahrenheit

Baking a ready-made pizza calls for an oven temperature of 450 °F. If you are in Europe, and your oven thermometer uses the Celsius scale, what is the setting? What is the kelvin temperature?

**Solution**

\[\mathrm{^\circ C=\dfrac{5}{9}(^\circ F-32)=\dfrac{5}{9}(450-32)=\dfrac{5}{9}\times 418=232 ^\circ C\rightarrow set\: oven\: to\: 230 ^\circ C}\hspace{20px}\textrm{(two significant figures)} \nonumber\]

\[\mathrm{K={^\circ C}+273.15=230+273=503\: K\rightarrow 5.0\times 10^2\,K\hspace{20px}(two\: significant\: figures)} \nonumber\]

Exercise \(\PageIndex{2}\)

Convert 50 °F to °C and K.

**Answer**-
10 °C, 280 K

## Pressure

The earth’s atmosphere exerts a pressure, as does any other gas. Although we do not normally notice atmospheric pressure, we are sensitive to pressure changes—for example, when your ears “pop” during take-off and landing while flying, or when you dive underwater. Gas pressure is caused by the force exerted by gas molecules colliding with the surfaces of objects (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)). Although the force of each collision is very small, any surface of appreciable area experiences a large number of collisions in a short time, which can result in a high pressure. In fact, normal air pressure is strong enough to crush a metal container when not balanced by equal pressure from inside the container.

**Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)**: The atmosphere above us exerts a large pressure on objects at the surface of the earth, roughly equal to the weight of a bowling ball pressing on an area the size of a human thumbnail.

Atmospheric pressure is caused by the weight of the column of air molecules in the atmosphere above an object, such as the tanker car. At sea level, this pressure is roughly the same as that exerted by a full-grown African elephant standing on a doormat, or a typical bowling ball resting on your thumbnail. These may seem like huge amounts, and they are, but life on earth has evolved under such atmospheric pressure. If you actually perch a bowling ball on your thumbnail, the pressure experienced is twice the usual pressure, and the sensation is unpleasant.

*Video ***\(\PageIndex{2}\): **A dramatic illustration of atmospheric pressure is provided in this brief video, which shows a railway tanker car imploding when its internal pressure is decreased.

*Video ***\(\PageIndex{3}\): **A smaller scale demonstration of this phenomenon is briefly explained.

Pressure is defined as the force exerted on a given area:

\[P=\dfrac{F}{A} \label{9.2.1}\]

Since pressure is directly proportional to force and inversely proportional to area (Equation \ref{9.2.1}), pressure can be increased either by either **increasing **the amount of force or by **decreasing **the area over which it is applied. Correspondingly, pressure can be decreased by either **decreasing **the force or **increasing **the area.

Let’s apply the definition of pressure (Equation \ref{9.2.1}) to determine which would be more likely to fall through thin ice in Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\).—the elephant or the figure skater?

* *

**Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)**: Although (a) an elephant’s weight is large, creating a very large force on the ground, (b) the figure skater exerts a much higher pressure on the ice due to the small surface area of her skates. (credit a: modification of work by Guido da Rozze; credit b: modification of work by Ryosuke Yagi).

A large African elephant can weigh 7 tons, supported on four feet, each with a diameter of about 1.5 ft (footprint area of 250 in^{2}), so the pressure exerted by each foot is about 14 lb/in^{2}:

\[\mathrm{pressure\: per\: elephant\: foot=14,000\dfrac{lb}{elephant}×\dfrac{1\: elephant}{4\: feet}×\dfrac{1\: foot}{250\:in^2}=14\:lb/in^2} \label{9.2.2}\]

The figure skater weighs about 120 lbs, supported on two skate blades, each with an area of about 2 in^{2}, so the pressure exerted by each blade is about 30 lb/in^{2}:

\[\mathrm{pressure\: per\: skate\: blade=120\dfrac{lb}{skater}×\dfrac{1\: skater}{2\: blades}×\dfrac{1\: blade}{2\:in^2}=30\:lb/in^2} \label{9.2.3}\]

Even though the elephant is more than one hundred-times heavier than the skater, it exerts less than one-half of the pressure and would therefore be less likely to fall though thin ice. On the other hand, if the skater removes her skates and stands with bare feet (or regular footwear) on the ice, the larger area over which her weight is applied greatly reduces the pressure exerted:

The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa), with 1 Pa = 1 N/m^{2}, where N is the newton, a unit of force defined as 1 kg m/s^{2}. One pascal is a small pressure; in many cases, it is more convenient to use units of kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) or bar (1 bar = 100,000 Pa). In the United States, pressure is often measured in pounds of force on an area of one square inch—pounds per square inch (psi)—for example, in car tires. Pressure can also be measured using the unit atmosphere (atm), which originally represented the average sea level air pressure at the approximate latitude of Paris (45°). Table \(\PageIndex{1}\) provides some information on these and a few other common units for pressure measurements

Unit Name and Abbreviation |
Definition or Relation to Other Unit |
Comment |
---|---|---|

pascal (Pa) | 1 Pa = 1 N/m^{2} |
recommended IUPAC unit |

kilopascal (kPa) | 1 kPa = 1000 Pa | |

pounds per square inch (psi) | air pressure at sea level is ~14.7 psi | |

atmosphere (atm) | 1 atm = 101,325 Pa | air pressure at sea level is ~1 atm |

bar (bar, or b) | 1 bar = 100,000 Pa (exactly) | commonly used in meteorology |

millibar (mbar, or mb) | 1000 mbar = 1 bar | |

inches of mercury (in. Hg) | 1 in. Hg = 3386 Pa | used by aviation industry, also some weather reports |

torr | \(\mathrm{1\: torr=\dfrac{1}{760}\:atm}\) | named after Evangelista Torricelli, inventor of the barometer |

millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) | 1 mm Hg ~1 torr |

Example \(\PageIndex{3}\): Conversion of Pressure Units

The United States National Weather Service reports pressure in both inches of Hg and millibars. Convert a pressure of 29.2 in. Hg into:

- torr
- atm
- kPa
- mbar

**Solution **

This is a unit conversion problem. The relationships between the various pressure units are given in Table \(\PageIndex{1}\).

- \(\mathrm{29.2\cancel{in\: Hg}×\dfrac{25.4\cancel{mm}}{1\cancel{in}} ×\dfrac{1\: torr}{1\cancel{mm\: Hg}} =742\: torr}\)
- \(\mathrm{742\cancel{torr}×\dfrac{1\: atm}{760\cancel{torr}}=0.976\: atm}\)
- \(\mathrm{742\cancel{torr}×\dfrac{101.325\: kPa}{760\cancel{torr}}=98.9\: kPa}\)
- \(\mathrm{98.9\cancel{kPa}×\dfrac{1000\cancel{Pa}}{1\cancel{kPa}} \times \dfrac{1\cancel{bar}}{100,000\cancel{Pa}} \times\dfrac{1000\: mbar}{1\cancel{bar}}=989\: mbar}\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{3}\)

A typical barometric pressure in Kansas City is 740 torr. What is this pressure in atmospheres, in millimeters of mercury, in kilopascals, and in bar?

****

**Answer**-
0.974 atm; 740 mm Hg; 98.7 kPa; 0.987 bar

We can measure atmospheric pressure, the force exerted by the atmosphere on the earth’s surface, with a barometer (Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\)). A barometer is a glass tube that is closed at one end, filled with a nonvolatile liquid such as mercury, and then inverted and immersed in a container of that liquid. The atmosphere exerts pressure on the liquid outside the tube, the column of liquid exerts pressure inside the tube, and the pressure at the liquid surface is the same inside and outside the tube. The height of the liquid in the tube is therefore proportional to the pressure exerted by the atmosphere.

**Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\)**: In a barometer, the height, h, of the column of liquid is used as a measurement of the air pressure. Using very dense liquid mercury (left) permits the construction of reasonably sized barometers, whereas using water (right) would require a barometer more than 30 feet tall.

**Video \(\PageIndex{2}\)**: The invention of the barometer.

If the liquid is water, normal atmospheric pressure will support a column of water over 10 meters high, which is rather inconvenient for making (and reading) a barometer. Because mercury (Hg) is about 13.6-times denser than water, a mercury barometer only needs to be \(\dfrac{1}{13.6}\) as tall as a water barometer—a more suitable size. Standard atmospheric pressure of 1 atm at sea level (101,325 Pa) corresponds to a column of mercury that is about 760 mm (29.92 in.) high. The torr was originally intended to be a unit equal to one millimeter of mercury, but it no longer corresponds exactly. The pressure exerted by a fluid due to gravity is known as hydrostatic pressure, *p*:

where

- \(h\) is the height of the fluid,
- \(ρ\) is the density of the fluid, and
- \(g\) is acceleration due to gravity.

A manometer is a device similar to a barometer that can be used to measure the pressure of a gas trapped in a container. A closed-end manometer is a U-shaped tube with one closed arm, one arm that connects to the gas to be measured, and a nonvolatile liquid (usually mercury) in between. As with a barometer, the distance between the liquid levels in the two arms of the tube (*h* in the diagram) is proportional to the pressure of the gas in the container. An open-end manometer (Figure \(\PageIndex{5}\)) is the same as a closed-end manometer, but one of its arms is open to the atmosphere. In this case, the distance between the liquid levels corresponds to the difference in pressure between the gas in the container and the atmosphere.

**Figure \(\PageIndex{5}\):** A manometer can be used to measure the pressure of a gas. The (difference in) height between the liquid levels (h) is a measure of the pressure. Mercury is usually used because of its large density.

Application: Measuring Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is measured using a device called a sphygmomanometer (Greek *sphygmos* = “pulse”). It consists of an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, a manometer to measure the pressure, and a method of determining when blood flow begins and when it becomes impeded (Figure \(\PageIndex{6}\)). Since its invention in 1881, it has been an essential medical device. There are many types of sphygmomanometers: manual ones that require a stethoscope and are used by medical professionals; mercury ones, used when the most accuracy is required; less accurate mechanical ones; and digital ones that can be used with little training but that have limitations. When using a sphygmomanometer, the cuff is placed around the upper arm and inflated until blood flow is completely blocked, then slowly released. As the heart beats, blood forced through the arteries causes a rise in pressure. This rise in pressure at which blood flow begins is the *systolic pressure—*the peak pressure in the cardiac cycle. When the cuff’s pressure equals the arterial systolic pressure, blood flows past the cuff, creating audible sounds that can be heard using a stethoscope. This is followed by a decrease in pressure as the heart’s ventricles prepare for another beat. As cuff pressure continues to decrease, eventually sound is no longer heard; this is the *diastolic pressure—*the lowest pressure (resting phase) in the cardiac cycle. Blood pressure units from a sphygmomanometer are in terms of millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

**Figure \(\PageIndex{6}\):** (a) A medical technician prepares to measure a patient’s blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer. (b) A typical sphygmomanometer uses a valved rubber bulb to inflate the cuff and a diaphragm gauge to measure pressure. (credit a: modification of work by Master Sgt. Jeffrey Allen)

How the Sciences interconnect: Meteorology, Climatology, and Atmospheric Science

Throughout the ages, people have observed clouds, winds, and precipitation, trying to discern patterns and make predictions: when it is best to plant and harvest; whether it is safe to set out on a sea voyage; and much more. We now face complex weather and atmosphere-related challenges that will have a major impact on our civilization and the ecosystem. Several different scientific disciplines use chemical principles to help us better understand weather, the atmosphere, and climate. These are meteorology, climatology, and atmospheric science. Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, atmospheric phenomena, and atmospheric effects on earth’s weather. Meteorologists seek to understand and predict the weather in the short term, which can save lives and benefit the economy. Weather forecasts (Figure \(\PageIndex{7}\)) are the result of thousands of measurements of air pressure, temperature, and the like, which are compiled, modeled, and analyzed in weather centers worldwide.

**Figure \(\PageIndex{7}\):** Meteorologists use weather maps to describe and predict weather. Regions of high (H) and low (L) pressure have large effects on weather conditions. The gray lines represent locations of constant pressure known as isobars. (credit: modification of work by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)

In terms of weather, low-pressure systems occur when the earth’s surface atmospheric pressure is lower than the surrounding environment: Moist air rises and condenses, producing clouds. Movement of moisture and air within various weather fronts instigates most weather events.

The atmosphere is the gaseous layer that surrounds a planet. Earth’s atmosphere, which is roughly 100–125 km thick, consists of roughly 78.1% nitrogen and 21.0% oxygen, and can be subdivided further into the regions shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{8}\): the exosphere (furthest from earth, > 700 km above sea level), the thermosphere (80–700 km), the mesosphere (50–80 km), the stratosphere (second lowest level of our atmosphere, 12–50 km above sea level), and the troposphere (up to 12 km above sea level, roughly 80% of the earth’s atmosphere by mass and the layer where most weather events originate). As you go higher in the troposphere, air density and temperature both decrease.

**Figure \(\PageIndex{8}\): **Earth’s atmosphere has five layers: the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, and the exosphere.

Climatology is the study of the climate, averaged weather conditions over long time periods, using atmospheric data. However, climatologists study patterns and effects that occur over decades, centuries, and millennia, rather than shorter time frames of hours, days, and weeks like meteorologists. Atmospheric science is an even broader field, combining meteorology, climatology, and other scientific disciplines that study the atmosphere.

## Summary

**Video \(\PageIndex{3}\)**: A brief overview of pressure.

Gases exert pressure, which is force per unit area. The pressure of a gas may be expressed in the SI unit of pascal or kilopascal, as well as in many other units including torr, atmosphere, and bar. Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer; other gas pressures can be measured using one of several types of manometers.

## Key Equations

- \(T_\mathrm{^\circ C}=\dfrac{5}{9}\times T_\mathrm{^\circ F}-32\)
- \(T_\mathrm{^\circ F}=\dfrac{9}{5}\times T_\mathrm{^\circ C}+32\)
- \(T_\ce{K}={^\circ \ce C}+273.15\)
- \(T_\mathrm{^\circ C}=\ce K-273.15\)
- \(P=\dfrac{F}{A}\)
*p*=*hρg*

## Glossary

- atmosphere (atm)
- unit of pressure; 1 atm = 101,325 Pa

- bar
- (bar or b) unit of pressure; 1 bar = 100,000 Pa

- barometer
- device used to measure atmospheric pressure

- Celsius (°C)
- unit of temperature; water freezes at 0 °C and boils at 100 °C on this scale
- Fahrenheit
- unit of temperature; water freezes at 32 °F and boils at 212 °F on this scale
- hydrostatic pressure
- pressure exerted by a fluid due to gravity

- kelvin (K)
- SI unit of temperature; 273.15 K = 0 ºC
- manometer
- device used to measure the pressure of a gas trapped in a container

- pascal (Pa)
- SI unit of pressure; 1 Pa = 1 N/m
^{2}

- pounds per square inch (psi)
- unit of pressure common in the US

- pressure
- force exerted per unit area

- torr
- unit of pressure; \(\mathrm{1\: torr=\dfrac{1}{760}\,atm}\)

## Contributors

Paul Flowers (University of North Carolina - Pembroke), Klaus Theopold (University of Delaware) and Richard Langley (Stephen F. Austin State University) with contributing authors. Textbook content produced by OpenStax College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/85abf193-2bd...a7ac8df6@9.110).

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