13.11: Chemical Shifts and Interpreting ¹³C NMR Spectra
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13C NMR Chemical Shifts
The Carbon NMR is used for determining functional groups using characteristic shift values. 13C chemical shift is affect by electronegative effect and steric effect. If an H atoms in an alkane is replace by substituent X, electronegative atoms (O, N, halogen), ?-carbon and ?-carbon shift to downfield (left; increase in ppm) while ?-carbon shifts to upfield. The steric effect is observed in acyclic and clyclic system, which leads to downshifted chemical shifts. Figure 9 shows typical 13C chemical shift regions of the major chemical class.
Comparing the 1H NMR, there is a big difference thing in the 13C NMR. The 13C-13Cspin-spin splitting rarely exit between adjacent carbons because 13C is naturally lower abundant (1.1%)
- 13C-1H Spin coupling: 13C-1H Spin coupling provides useful information about the number of protons attached a carbon atom. In case of one bond coupling (1JCH), -CH, -CH2, and CH3 have respectively doublet, triplet, quartets for the 13C resonances in the spectrum. However, 13C-1H Spin coupling has an disadvantage for 13C spectrum interpretation. 13C-1H Spin coupling is hard to analyze and reveal structure due to a forest of overlapping peaks that result from 100% abundance of 1H.
- Decoupling: Decoupling is the process of removing 13C-1H coupling interaction to simplify a spectrum and identify which pair of nuclei is involved in the J coupling. The decoupling 13C spectra shows only one peak(singlet) for each unique carbon in the molecule(Fig 10.). Decoupling is performed by irradiating at the frequency of one proton with continuous low-power RF.
Fig 10. Decoupling in the 13C NMR
Contributors and Attributions
Prof. Steven Farmer (Sonoma State University)
Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis by Tim Soderberg (University of Minnesota, Morris)
Chris P Schaller, Ph.D., (College of Saint Benedict / Saint John's University)