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1.3: Simple Bonding Theory

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    • 1.3.1: Lewis Electron-Dot Diagrams
      The bonding between atoms in a molecule can be topically modeled though Lewis electron dot diagrams. Creating Lewis diagrams is rather simple and requires only a few steps and some accounting of the valence electrons on each atom. Valence electrons are represented as dots. When two electrons are paired (lone pairs), they are represented by two adjacent dots located on an atom, and when two paired electrons are shared between atoms (bonds), they are shown as lines.
    • 1.3.2: Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion
      The Valence Shell Electron Repulsion (VSEPR) model can predict the structure of most molecules and polyatomic ions in which the central atom is a nonmetal; it also works for some structures in which the central atom is a metal. VSEPR builds on Lewis electron dot structures and together can predict the geometry of each atom in a molecule. The main idea of VSEPR theory is that pairs of electrons (in bonds and in lone pairs) repel each other.
    • 1.3.3: Molecular Polarity
      Dipole moments occur when there is a separation of charge. They can occur between two ions in an ionic bond or between atoms in a covalent bond; dipole moments arise from differences in electronegativity. The larger the difference in electronegativity, the larger the dipole moment. The distance between the charge separation is also a deciding factor into the size of the dipole moment. The dipole moment is a measure of the polarity of the molecule.
    • 1.3.4: Hydrogen Bonding
      A hydrogen bond is an intermolecular force (IMF) that forms a special type of dipole-dipole attraction when a hydrogen atom bonded to a strongly electronegative atom exists in the vicinity of another electronegative atom with a lone pair of electrons. Hydrogen bonds are are generally stronger than ordinary dipole-dipole and dispersion forces, but weaker than true covalent and ionic bonds.
    • 1.3.5: Valence Bond Theory
      Valence bond theory describes bonding as a consequence of the overlap of two separate atomic orbitals on different atoms that creates a region with one pair of electrons shared between the two atoms. When the orbitals overlap along an axis containing the nuclei, they form a σ bond. When they overlap in a fashion that creates a node along this axis, they form a π bond.
    • 1.3.6: Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
      We can use hybrid orbitals, which are mathematical combinations of some or all of the valence atomic orbitals, to describe the electron density around covalently bonded atoms. These hybrid orbitals either form sigma (σ) bonds directed toward other atoms of the molecule or contain lone pairs of electrons. We can determine the type of hybridization around a central atom from the geometry of the regions of electron density about it.

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