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3.8.1.0: The Solid State of Matter (Problems)

  • Page ID
    210740
  • PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    At very low temperatures oxygen, O2, freezes and forms a crystalline solid. Which best describes these crystals?

    1. ionic
    2. covalent network
    3. metallic
    4. amorphous
    5. molecular crystals
    Answer

    (e) molecular crystals

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    As it cools, olive oil slowly solidifies and forms a solid over a range of temperatures. Which best describes the solid?

    1. ionic
    2. covalent network
    3. metallic
    4. amorphous
    5. molecular crystals
    Answer

    (d) amorphous

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{3}\)

    Explain why ice, which is a crystalline solid, has a melting temperature of 0 °C, whereas butter, which is an amorphous solid, softens over a range of temperatures.

    Answer

    Ice has a crystalline structure stabilized by hydrogen bonding. These intermolecular forces are of comparable strength and thus require the same amount of energy to overcome. As a result, ice melts at a single temperature and not over a range of temperatures. The various, very large molecules that compose butter experience varied van der Waals attractions of various strengths that are overcome at various temperatures, and so the melting process occurs over a wide temperature range.

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{4}\)

    Identify the type of crystalline solid (metallic, network covalent, ionic, or molecular) formed by each of the following substances:

    1. SiO2
    2. KCl
    3. Cu
    4. CO2
    5. C (diamond)
    6. BaSO4
    7. NH3
    8. NH4F
    9. C2H5OH
    Answer a

    covalent network

    Answer b

    ionic

    Answer c

    metallic

    Answer d

    molecular

    Answer e

    covalent network

    Answer f

    ionic

    Answer g

    molecular

    Answer h

    ionic

    Answer i

    molecular

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    Identify the type of crystalline solid (metallic, network covalent, ionic, or molecular) formed by each of the following substances:

    1. CaCl2
    2. SiC
    3. N2
    4. Fe
    5. C (graphite)
    6. CH3CH2CH2CH3
    7. HCl
    8. NH4NO3
    9. K3PO4
    Answer a

    ionic

    Answer b

    Covalent network

    Answer c

    molecular

    Answer d

    metallic

    Answer e

    covalent network

    Answer f

    molecular

    Answer g

    molecular

    Answer h

    ionic

    Answer i

    ionic

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{6}\)

    Classify each substance in the table as either a metallic, ionic, molecular, or covalent network solid:

    Substance Appearance Melting Point Electrical Conductivity Solubility in Water
    X lustrous, malleable 1500 °C high insoluble
    Y soft, yellow 113 °C none insoluble
    Z hard, white 800 °C only if melted/dissolved soluble
    Answer

    X = metallic; Y = covalent network; Z = ionic

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{7}\)

    Classify each substance in the table as either a metallic, ionic, molecular, or covalent network solid:

    Substance Appearance Melting Point Electrical Conductivity Solubility in Water
    X brittle, white 800 °C only if melted/dissolved soluble
    Y shiny, malleable 1100 °C high insoluble
    Z hard, colorless 3550 °C none insoluble
    Answer

    X = ionic; Y = metallic; Z = covalent network

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{8}\)

    Substance A is shiny, conducts electricity well, and melts at 975 °C. Substance A is likely a(n):

    1. ionic solid
    2. metallic solid
    3. molecular solid
    4. covalent network solid
    Answer

    (b) metallic solid

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{9}\)

    Substance B is hard, does not conduct electricity, and melts at 1200 °C. Substance B is likely a(n):

    1. ionic solid
    2. metallic solid
    3. molecular solid
    4. covalent network solid
    Answer

    (d) covalent network solid

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