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3.3.2.0: Lewis Structures (Problems)

  • Page ID
    210705
  • PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write Lewis structures for the following:

    1. H2
    2. HBr
    3. PCl3
    4. SF2
    5. H2CCH2
    6. HNNH
    7. H2CNH
    8. NO
    9. N2
    10. CO
    11. CN
    Answer a

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.21.44 PM.png

    Answer b

    clipboard_e963962fec34c3c8fbc1c35e0b1e88424.png

    Answer c

    clipboard_e5ccf99a78d5729f609adf74d223eb605.png

    Answer d

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.21.54 PM.png

    Answer e

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.22.01 PM.png

    Answer f

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.22.05 PM.png

    Answer g

    H2CNH.png

    Answer h

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.22.12 PM.png

    Answer i

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.22.15 PM.png

    Answer j

    clipboard_e1c3b47b86b6ffbac5921b12e52ec2d3a.png

    Answer k

    clipboard_e40e1c7285f192372b275c1c7caa003e4.png

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    Write Lewis structures for the following:

    1. O2
    2. H2CO
    3. ClNO
    4. SiCl4
    5. H3O+
    6. \(\ce{NH4+}\)
    7. \(\ce{BF4-}\)
    8. HCCH
    9. ClCN
    10. \(\ce{C2^2+}\)
    Answer a

    A Lewis structure shows two oxygen atoms double bonded together, and each has two lone pairs of electrons.

    Answer b

    A Lewis structure shows a carbon atom that is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and double bonded to an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electrons.

    Answer c

    A Lewis structure shows a nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons single bonded to a chlorine atom that has three lone pairs of electrons. The nitrogen is also double bonded to an oxygen which has two lone pairs of electrons.

    Answer d

    A Lewis structure shows a silicon atom that is single bonded to four chlorine atoms. Each chlorine atom has three lone pairs of electrons.

    Answer e

    A Lewis structure shows an oxygen atom with a lone pair of electrons single bonded to three hydrogen atoms. The structure is surrounded by brackets with a superscripted positive sign.

    Answer f

    A Lewis structure shows a nitrogen atom single bonded to four hydrogen atoms. The structure is surrounded by brackets with a superscripted positive sign.

    Answer g

    A Lewis structure shows a boron atom single bonded to four fluorine atoms. Each fluorine atom has three lone pairs of electrons. The structure is surrounded by brackets with a superscripted negative sign.

    Answer h

    A Lewis structure shows two carbon atoms that are triple bonded together. Each carbon is also single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

    Answer i

    A Lewis structure shows a carbon atom that is triple bonded to a nitrogen atom that has one lone pair of electrons. The carbon is also single bonded to a chlorine atom that has three lone pairs of electrons.

    Answer j

    A Lewis structure shows two carbon atoms joined with a triple bond. A superscripted 2 positive sign lies to the right of the second carbon.

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{3}\)

    Write Lewis structures for:

    a. \(\ce{PO4^3-}\)
    c. \(\ce{SO3^2-}\)
    d. HONO

    Answer a

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.22.34 PM.png

    Answer b

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.22.39 PM.png

    Answer c

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.22.43 PM.png

    Click here to see a video of the solution

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{4}\)

    Methanol, H3COH, is used as the fuel in some race cars. Ethanol, C2H5OH, is used extensively as motor fuel in Brazil. Both methanol and ethanol produce CO2 and H2O when they burn. Write the chemical equations for these combustion reactions using Lewis structures instead of chemical formulas.

    Answer

    Two reactions are shown using Lewis structures. The top reaction shows a carbon atom, single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and single bonded to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. The oxygen atom is also bonded to a hydrogen atom. This is followed by a plus sign and the number one point five, followed by two oxygen atoms bonded together with a double bond and each with two lone pairs of electrons. A right-facing arrow leads to a carbon atom that is double bonded to two oxygen atoms, each of which has two lone pairs of electrons. This structure is followed by a plus sign, a number two, and a structure made up of an oxygen with two lone pairs of electrons single bonded to two hydrogen atoms. The bottom reaction shows a carbon atom, single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and single bonded to another carbon atom. The second carbon atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. The oxygen atom is also bonded to a hydrogen atom. This is followed by a plus sign and the number three, followed by two oxygen atoms bonded together with a double bond. Each oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electrons. A right-facing arrow leads to a number two and a carbon atom that is double bonded to two oxygen atoms, each of which has two lone pairs of electrons. This structure is followed by a plus sign, a number three, and a structure made up of an oxygen with two lone pairs of electrons single bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{5}\)

    Many planets in our solar system contain organic chemicals including methane (CH4) and traces of ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6), propyne (H3CCCH), and diacetylene (HCCCCH). Write the Lewis structures for each of these molecules. (diacetylene may be a little tricky!)

    Answer

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.22.47 PM.png

    Screen Shot 2018-12-31 at 2.22.55 PM.png

    Click here to see a video of the solution

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{6}\)

    Carbon tetrachloride was formerly used in fire extinguishers for electrical fires. It is no longer used for this purpose because of the formation of the toxic gas phosgene, Cl2CO. Write the Lewis structures for carbon tetrachloride and phosgene.

    Answer

    Two Lewis structures are shown. The left depicts a carbon atom single bonded to four chlorine atoms, each with three lone pairs of electrons. The right shows a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom that has two lone pairs of electrons. The carbon atom is also single bonded to two chlorine atoms, each of which has three lone pairs of electrons.

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{7}\)

    The arrangement of atoms in several biologically important molecules is given here. Complete the Lewis structures of these molecules by adding multiple bonds and lone pairs. Do not add any more atoms.

    a. the amino acid serine:

    A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom and two other carbon atoms. One of these carbon atoms is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom. The other carbon atom is single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is bonded to a hydrogen atom.

    b. urea:

    A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and another nitrogen atom. That nitrogen atom is then single bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

    c. pyruvic acid:

    A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and another carbon atom. The second carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and a third carbon atom. This carbon is then single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

    d. uracil:

    A Lewis hexagonal ring structure is shown. From the top of the ring (moving clockwise), three carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, a carbon atom, and a nitrogen atom are single bonded to each another. The top carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom. The second and third carbons and the nitrogen atom are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The next carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom, and the last nitrogen atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

    e. carbonic acid:

    A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three oxygen atoms. Two of those oxygen atoms are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

    Answer a

    A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom and two other carbon atoms. One of these carbon atoms is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom. The other carbon is single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is bonded to a hydrogen atom. The oxygen atoms have two lone pairs of electron dots, and the nitrogen atom has one lone pair of electron dots.

    Answer b

    A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and one nitrogen atom. That nitrogen atom is then single bonded to two hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electron dots, and the nitrogen atoms have one lone pair of electron dots each.

    Answer c

    A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and a third carbon atom. This carbon is then single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is single bonded to a hydrogen atom. Each oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electron dots.

    Answer d

    A Lewis hexagonal ring structure is shown. From the top of the ring, three carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom are single bonded to one another. The top carbon is single bonded to an oxygen, the second and third carbons and the nitrogen atom are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The next carbon is single bonded to an oxygen atom and the last nitrogen is single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The oxygen atoms have two lone pairs of electron dots, and the nitrogen atoms have one lone pair of electron dots.

    Answer e

    A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three oxygen atoms. Two of those oxygen atoms are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom. Each oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electron dots.

    PROBLEM \(\PageIndex{8}\)

    How are single, double, and triple bonds similar? How do they differ?

    Answer

    Each bond includes a sharing of electrons between atoms. Two electrons are shared in a single bond; four electrons are shared in a double bond; and six electrons are shared in a triple bond.

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