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Synthesis of Sonogel-Carbon Modified Electrode with Titanium Oxide

This experiment was part of an Analytical/Instrumental Analysis course. It requires the synthesis of a sonogel-carbon electrode (SGC) modified with a TiO2 sol-gel and heated at high temperatures. The electrochemical response of the synthesized SGC/TiO2 electrode was compared to that of an unmodified sonogel-carbon electrode to detect catechol (catecholamines). The design of the experiment encourages some choices to be made by the student, although the sol-gel syntheses are recipe driven. The students were required to determine if the modified electrode showed marked enhanced detection of catechol in the presence of ascorbic acid, compared to an electrochemically prepared conducting poly (3-methylthiophene) electrode in the detection of catechol over several scans. The students gain electrochemical instrumentation skills and implement them by studying reduction-oxidation states of catechol in the presence of ascorbic acid.


  • Suzanne K. Lunsford, Amber Yeary, Jelynn Stinson (Wright State University); Hyeok Choi, Dionysios D. Dionysiou (University of Cincinnati)