# 3.5: SI Mass and Weight Units

## Introduction

One of the many interesting things about travel in outer space is the idea of weightlessness. If something is not fastened down, it will float in mid-air. Early astronauts learned that weightlessness had bad effects on bone structure. If there was no pressure on the legs, those bones would begin to lose mass. Weight provided by gravity is needed to maintain healthy bones. Specially designed equipment is now a part of every space mission so the astronauts can maintain good body fitness.

## Mass and Weight

Mass is a measure of the amount of matter that an object contains. The mass of an object is made in comparison to the standard mass of 1 kilogram. The kilogram was originally defined as the mass of $$1 \: \text{L}$$ of liquid water at $$4^\text{o} \text{C}$$ (volume of a liquid changes slightly with temperature). In the laboratory, mass is measured with a balance (see below), which must be calibrated with a standard mass so that its measurements are accurate. An analytical balance makes very sensitive mass measurements in a laboratory, usually in grams.

Other common units of mass are the gram and the milligram. A gram is 1/1000th of a kilogram, meaning that there are $$1000 \: \text{g}$$ in $$1 \: \text{kg}$$. A milligram is 1/1000th of a gram, so there are $$1000 \: \text{mg}$$ in $$1 \: \text{g}$$.

Mass is often confused with the term weight. Weight is a measure of force that is equal to the gravitational pull on an object. The weight of an object is dependent on its location. On the moon, the force due to gravity is about one sixth that of the gravitational force on Earth. Therefore, a given object will weight six times more on Earth than it does on the moon. Since mass is dependent only on the amount of matter present in an object, mass does not change with location. Weight measurements are often made with a spring scale by reading the distance that a certain object pulls down and stretches a spring.

## Summary

• Mass is a measure of the amount of matter that an object contains.
• Weight is a measure of force that is equal to the gravitational pull on an object.
• Mass is independent of location, while weight depends on location.

## Explore More

1. Describe how mass is related to volume.

2. What is the SI unit for mass?

3. How is weight different from mass?

4. What is the unit of weight in the United States?

5. What happens to the mass of an astronaut in space?

6. What happens to the weight of an astronaut in space? Give an example.

## Contributors

• CK-12 Foundation by Sharon Bewick, Richard Parsons, Therese Forsythe, Shonna Robinson, and Jean Dupon.