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Chemistry LibreTexts

1.E: Structure and Bonding (Exercises)

  • Page ID
    61688
  • These are the homework exercises to accompany the Textmap for McMurry's Organic Chemistry textbook.

    1.2: Atomic Structure: Orbitals

    1.2 Exercises

    Questions

    Q1.2.1

    Label the following orbitals:

    Solutions

    S1.2.1

    1= 3px; 2= 3s ; 3= 2pz

    1.3: Atomic Structure: Electron Configurations

    1.3 Exercises

    Questions

    Q1.3.1

    Give the electron configurations for Al, Br, Fe.

    Solutions

    S1.3.1

    Al = 1s22s22p63s23p1

    Br = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5

    Fe = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6

    1.4: Development of Chemical Bonding Theory

    1.4 Exercises

    Questions

    Q1.4.1

    List the bond angles for each of the following compounds: BH3, CF4, H2O.

    Q1.4.2

    Why is sulfur dioxide a bent molecule (bond angle less than 180°)?

    Solutions

    S1.4.1

    HBH = 120°

    FCF = 109.5°

    OHO = 104°

    S1.4.2

    This deviation is due to the lone pairs on the sulfur. These force the molecule to exhibit a “bent” geometry and therefore a deviation from the 180°.

    1.5: The Nature of Chemical Bonds: Valence Bond Theory

    1.5 Exercises

    Questions

    Q1.5.1

    Draw an energy diagram for energy vs. intermolecular distance for a fluorine molecule (F2) and describe the regions of the graph.

    Solutions

    S1.5.1

    A - Repulsive Forces are present, p-orbitals are too close together

    B - Optimal distance between the two p-orbitals to have a bond (the bond length)

    C - Cannot form a bond, orbitals are too far away

    1.7: sp3sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethane

    1.7 Exercises

    Questions

    Q1.7.1

    Draw pentane, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3, predict the bond angles within this molecule.

    Solutions

    S1.7.1

    All the bond angles will be the same size.

    1.8: sp2sp2 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethylene

    1.8 Exercises

    Questions

    Q1.8.1

    Consider the following molecule:

    At each atom, what is the hybridization and the bond angle? At atom A draw the molecular orbital.

    Solutions

    S1.8.1

    A - sp2, 120°

    B - sp3, 109°

    C - sp2, 120° (with the lone pairs present)

    D - sp3, 109°

    1.9: spsp Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Acetylene

    1.9 Exercises

    Questions

    Q1.9.1

    1-Cyclohexyne is a very strained molecule. By looking at the molecule explain why there is such a intermolecular strain using the knowledge of hybridization and bond angles.

    Solutions

    S1.9.1

    The alkyne is a sp hybridized orbital. By looking at a sp orbital, we can see that the bond angle is 180°, but in cyclohexane the regular angles would be 109.5°. Therefore the molecule would be strained to force the 180° to be a 109°.

    1.10: Hybridization of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus and Sulfur

    1.10 Exercises

    Questions

    Q1.10.1

    Identify geometry and lone pairs on each heteroatom of the molecules given.

    Solutions

    S1.10.1

    Diethyl ether would have two lone pairs of electrons and would have a bent geometry around the oxygen.

    Dimethyl amine would have one lone pair and would show a pyramidal geometry around the nitrogen.

    1.12: Drawing Chemical Structures

    1.12 Exercises

    Questions

    Q1.12.1

    Below is the molecule for caffeine. Give the molecular formula for it.

    Solutions

    S1.12.1

    C8H10O2N4