# 11.E: Properties of Solutions

### CONCENTRATION

1.  How many moles of sodium chlorate are in 284 grams of a 12.0% sodium chlorate solution?

2.  Calculate the mole fraction of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) when 120. grams of ethylene glycol are dissolved in 1.20 kilograms acetone (C3H6O).

3.  The density of a 6.90 M potassium hydroxide solution is 1.29 g/cm3.  Find the mass percent of solute and molality of this solution.

4.  A solution is prepared by mixing 12.8 grams of methanol (density = 0.791 g/mL) and 144 grams of water (density = 1.00 g/mL).  Assuming volumes are additive, what is the molarity of methanol in the solution?

### SOLUBILITY

5.  How does the solubility of gases vary with temperature?  Give an example from everyday life that demonstrates this.

6.  You are given a solution of sucrose.  How would you determine whether the solution was unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated?

### COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

7.  What is the freezing point of a solution containing 0.110 moles of a nonelectrolyte in 55.0 g of water?

8.  What is the freezing point of a solution containing 27.8 g of calcium chloride in 250. g of water?  (Is calcium chloride an ionic or molecular solute and why is this important?)

9.  What is the molar mass of a nonelectrolyte if 80.0 g of the substance dissolved in 200.0 g of water has a freezing point of -4.65°C?

10.  What is the boiling point of a solution containing 0.500 moles of a nonelectrolyte in 200.0 g of benzene?

11.  What is the molar mass of a nonelectrolyte if a solution containing 45.0 g of the nonelectrolyte in 75.0 g of benzene boils at 90.2°C?

### Extra Questions

1.  A household chlorine bleach is a water solution that is 5.00% by mass sodium hypochlorite.  What is the molality of the hypochlorite in the solution?  What is the mole fraction of hypochlorite in the solution?

2.  How many grams of a 32.0% sodium hydroxide solution contain 12.8 grams of sodium hydroxide?

3.  What is the mass percent of solute in a solution that has a mole fraction of 0.0476 sodium hydroxide in water?  If the density of the solution is 1.11 g/cm3, what is the molarity of the solution?

4.  What is the mole fraction of potassium nitrate in a saturated solution of potassium nitrate in water at 80.°C?

5.  What is the boiling point of a solution containing 44.6 g of toluene (C7H8) dissolved in in 250. g of benzene?

6.  How many grams of calcium chloride must be added to 200. grams of water to make a solution with a freezing point of -10.0°C?

7.  A solution containing 9.00 g of an alcohol in 300.0 g of water has a freezing point of −0.930 °C.  What is the molecular formula of this alcohol?