1. How many moles of sodium chlorate are in 284 grams of a 12.0% sodium chlorate solution?
2. Calculate the mole fraction of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) when 120. grams of ethylene glycol are dissolved in 1.20 kilograms acetone (C3H6O).
3. The density of a 6.90 M potassium hydroxide solution is 1.29 g/cm3. Find the mass percent of solute and molality of this solution.
4. A solution is prepared by mixing 12.8 grams of methanol (density = 0.791 g/mL) and 144 grams of water (density = 1.00 g/mL). Assuming volumes are additive, what is the molarity of methanol in the solution?
5. How does the solubility of gases vary with temperature? Give an example from everyday life that demonstrates this.
6. You are given a solution of sucrose. How would you determine whether the solution was unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated?
7. What is the freezing point of a solution containing 0.110 moles of a nonelectrolyte in 55.0 g of water?
8. What is the freezing point of a solution containing 27.8 g of calcium chloride in 250. g of water? (Is calcium chloride an ionic or molecular solute and why is this important?)
9. What is the molar mass of a nonelectrolyte if 80.0 g of the substance dissolved in 200.0 g of water has a freezing point of -4.65°C?
10. What is the boiling point of a solution containing 0.500 moles of a nonelectrolyte in 200.0 g of benzene?
11. What is the molar mass of a nonelectrolyte if a solution containing 45.0 g of the nonelectrolyte in 75.0 g of benzene boils at 90.2°C?
1. A household chlorine bleach is a water solution that is 5.00% by mass sodium hypochlorite. What is the molality of the hypochlorite in the solution? What is the mole fraction of hypochlorite in the solution?
2. How many grams of a 32.0% sodium hydroxide solution contain 12.8 grams of sodium hydroxide?
3. What is the mass percent of solute in a solution that has a mole fraction of 0.0476 sodium hydroxide in water? If the density of the solution is 1.11 g/cm3, what is the molarity of the solution?
4. What is the mole fraction of potassium nitrate in a saturated solution of potassium nitrate in water at 80.°C?
5. What is the boiling point of a solution containing 44.6 g of toluene (C7H8) dissolved in in 250. g of benzene?
6. How many grams of calcium chloride must be added to 200. grams of water to make a solution with a freezing point of -10.0°C?
7. A solution containing 9.00 g of an alcohol in 300.0 g of water has a freezing point of −0.930 °C. What is the molecular formula of this alcohol?