# 11.E: Properties of Solutions

**CONCENTRATION**

1. How many moles of sodium chlorate are in 284 grams of a 12.0% sodium chlorate solution?

2. Calculate the mole fraction of ethylene glycol (C_{2}H_{6}O_{2}) when 120. grams of ethylene glycol are dissolved in 1.20 kilograms acetone (C_{3}H_{6}O).

3. The density of a 6.90 M potassium hydroxide solution is 1.29 g/cm^{3}. Find the mass percent of solute and molality of this solution.

4. A solution is prepared by mixing 12.8 grams of methanol (density = 0.791 g/mL) and 144 grams of water (density = 1.00 g/mL). Assuming volumes are additive, what is the molarity of methanol in the solution?

**SOLUBILITY**

5. How does the solubility of gases vary with temperature? Give an example from everyday life that demonstrates this.

6. You are given a solution of sucrose. How would you determine whether the solution was unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated?

**COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES**

7. What is the freezing point of a solution containing 0.110 moles of a nonelectrolyte in 55.0 g of water?

8. What is the freezing point of a solution containing 27.8 g of calcium chloride in 250. g of water? (Is calcium chloride an ionic or molecular solute and why is this important?)

9. What is the molar mass of a nonelectrolyte if 80.0 g of the substance dissolved in 200.0 g of water has a freezing point of -4.65°C?

10. What is the boiling point of a solution containing 0.500 moles of a nonelectrolyte in 200.0 g of benzene?

11. What is the molar mass of a nonelectrolyte if a solution containing 45.0 g of the nonelectrolyte in 75.0 g of benzene boils at 90.2°C?

### Extra Questions

1. A household chlorine bleach is a water solution that is 5.00% by mass sodium hypochlorite. What is the molality of the hypochlorite in the solution? What is the mole fraction of hypochlorite in the solution?

2. How many grams of a 32.0% sodium hydroxide solution contain 12.8 grams of sodium hydroxide?

3. What is the mass percent of solute in a solution that has a mole fraction of 0.0476 sodium hydroxide in water? If the density of the solution is 1.11 g/cm^{3}, what is the molarity of the solution?

4. What is the mole fraction of potassium nitrate in a saturated solution of potassium nitrate in water at 80.°C?

5. What is the boiling point of a solution containing 44.6 g of toluene (C_{7}H_{8}) dissolved in in 250. g of benzene?

6. How many grams of calcium chloride must be added to 200. grams of water to make a solution with a freezing point of -10.0°C?

7. A solution containing 9.00 g of an alcohol in 300.0 g of water has a freezing point of −0.930 °C. What is the molecular formula of this alcohol?