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Chemistry LibreTexts

10.E: Liquids and Solids

1.  For each of the following pairs of substances, specify the type of interparticle bonding in each, and indicate which one has the higher boiling point:

  1. NH3 or PH3       
  2. C4H10 or C6H14    
  3. CO2 or H2O      
  4. HCl or LiCl 
  5. Na or NaCl


2.  For each of the following types of solids, describe its structure and the nature of the forces holding it together, and give the formula of at least one example: 

  1. ionic
  2. covalent (molecular)
  3. metallic
  4. network covalent


3.  List the substance types in (3) in order of increasing melting point.


4.  Which of the types of substances in (3) conduct electricity as solids? as liquids?


5.  Of the following substances:  NaCl, diamond, Fe, F2, C3H7OH, which one

  1. has the lowest boiling point?              
  2. is held together by ionic bonds?


6.  Define boiling point, critical temperature, critical pressure, and triple point.


7.  Explain how each of the following affects the vapor pressure of a liquid: 

  1. surface area
  2. temperature
  3. intermolecular attractive forces
  4. volume of liquid


8.  What are the three types of intermolecular attractive forces and list them in order of increasing strength?


9.  The normal (1 atm) melting and boiling points of O2 are -218°C and -183°C, respectively.  Its triple point is at -219°C and 1.14 x 10-3 atm, and its critical point is at -119°C and 49.8 atm. 

  1. Sketch the phase diagram for O2, showing the 4 points given above and indicating the area in which each phase is stable. 
  2. Which is denser, O2(s) or O2(l)?  Explain. 
  3. As it is heated, will solid O2 sublime or melt at a pressure of 1 atm?


10.  The vapor pressure of solid iodine (I2) at 30°C is 0.466 mm Hg.  How many milligrams of iodine will sublime into an evacuated 1.00-liter flask?