This is the second semester of General Chemistry at the University of Minnesota Rochester. Given that students at UMR have already taken at least one semester in Organic Chemistry before enrolling in General Chemistry, this course already assumes knowledge of inorganic and organic chemical structures as well as chemical equilibrium concepts.
- In this chapter, we will consider the nature of solutions, and examine factors that determine whether a solution will form and what properties it may have. In addition, we will discuss colloids—systems that resemble solutions but consist of dispersions of particles somewhat larger than ordinary molecules or ions.
- In this chapter, you will learn how to predict the position of the balance and the yield of a product of a reaction under specific conditions, how to change a reaction's conditions to increase or reduce yield, and how to evaluate an equilibrium system's reaction to disturbances.
- This chapter will illustrate the chemistry of acid-base reactions and equilibria, and provide you with tools for quantifying the concentrations of acids and bases in solutions.
- We previously learned about aqueous solutions and their importance, as well as about solubility rules. While this gives us a picture of solubility, that picture is not complete if we look at the rules alone. Solubility equilibrium, which we will explore in this chapter, is a more complex topic that allows us to determine the extent to which a slightly soluble ionic solid will dissolve, and the conditions under which precipitation.
- The chemical reactions that we have considered in previous chapters involve changes in the electronic structure of the species involved, that is, the arrangement of the electrons around atoms, ions, or molecules. Nuclear structure, the numbers of protons and neutrons within the nuclei of the atoms involved, remains unchanged during chemical reactions. This chapter will introduce the topic of nuclear chemistry, which began with the discovery of radioactivity.
- Among the many capabilities of chemistry is its ability to predict if a process will occur under specified conditions. Thermodynamics, the study of relationships between the energy and work associated with chemical and physical processes, provides this predictive ability. This chapter will introduce thermodynamic concepts that enable the prediction of any chemical or physical changes under a given set of conditions.
- Electrochemistry deals with chemical reactions that produce electricity and the changes associated with the passage of electrical current through matter. The reactions involve electron transfer, and so they are oxidation-reduction (or redox) reactions. Many metals may be purified or electroplated using electrochemical methods.
- Transition metals are defined as those elements that have (or readily form) partially filled d orbitals. These include the d-block (groups 3–11) and f-block element elements. The variety of properties exhibited by transition metals is due to their complex valence shells. Unlike most main group metals where one oxidation state is normally observed, transition metals usually occur in several different stable oxidation states.