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4.1 Unit 4 Exam

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  • cc_profilecc.exam.v0p1qmd_assessmenttypeExaminationqmd_scoretypePercentagecc_maxattempts1
    cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1According to Darwin, <u>individuals</u> with traits better suited to their environment are more likely to survive. TrueFalse1100cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1The human forelimb and the bat forelimb are <u>homologous</u> structures. TrueFalse3100cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1Darwin’s theory lacked a mechanism for <u>evolution</u>. TrueFalse6100cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1<u>Individuals</u> can evolve. TrueFalse8100cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1Evolution <u>does not always</u> produce the fittest form. TrueFalse9100cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1Microevolution can be studied by observing changes in the numbers and types of <u>phenotypes</u> in a population. TrueFalse12100cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1<u>Small</u> populations are more likely to have stable allele frequencies. TrueFalse14100cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1Successful survival and reproduction are indicators of evolutionary <u>fitness</u>. TrueFalse15100cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1<u>Stabilizing</u> selection tends to eliminate individuals that have alleles for any extreme phenotype. TrueFalse17100cc_profilecc.true_false.v0p1A <u>species</u> is generally defined as a group of natural populations that can interbreed. TrueFalse19100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Evolution can be defined as a genetic change inspecies.environmental variation.chromosomal drift.natural selection.21100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Which of the following statements is <b><i>not</i></b> true about the steps of natural selection?Populations are able to overproduce.A small amount of variation can be attributed to inherited traits.The environment causes some individuals to leave more offspring than others.Adaptations for an environment become more common over time.26100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Natural selection is the process by whichchange occurs in the genetic characteristics of individuals that live together in an environment from one generation to another.organisms with traits well-suited to their environment reproduce at a greater rate than less well-adapted organisms in the same environment.use and disuse of a characteristic leads to evolutionary players pass on the trait for strong arm muscles to children.30100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Evidence that supports the theory of evolution includes all of the following <i>except</i>punctuated sedimentation.similarities and differences in amino-acid and DNA sequences between organisms.the fossil record.homologous structures.33100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Biogeography is the study offood preferences of organisms.the location of organisms on Earth.DNA and RNA nucleotides.homologous structures.38100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Darwin’s theory lacked an explanation forhow evolution occurs.inheritance of traits.adaptations.competition.42100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1The formation of new species is calledextinction.embryology.speciation.microevolution47100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1The hypothesis that evolution occurs at a slow, gradual pace is known asgradualism.slow motion.natural selection.adaptation.49100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Genetic variation and change are measured in terms of the frequency of alleles in the _____ of a population.gene poolchromosomesmutation rateindividuals53100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Which is <i>not</i> a cause for the actual proportions of homozygotes and heterozygotes to differ from Hardy-Weinberg predictions?the occurrence of mutationsnatural selection acting on genotypesgenetic drift within the populationnonrandom mating among individuals58100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1homozygous : heterozygous ::heterozygous : <i>Bb</i>probability : predicting chances<i>BB</i> : <i>Bb</i>factor : gene63100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Inbreedingis a form of random mating.causes mutations to occur.increases the proportion of heterozygotes.increases the proportion of homozygotes.68100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1Directional selection tends to eliminateboth extremes in a range of extreme in a range of phenotypes.intermediate phenotypes.newly formed phenotypes.70100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1shift toward one extreme : directional selection ::shift away from the mean : stabilizing selectionshift toward the mean : disruptive selectionshift away from both extremes : stabilizing selectionshift toward both extremes : directional selection75100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1A population of clams lives in a rocky intertidal zone where black lava has flowed into an area of white sand and bleached coral. The clams’ shells range in color from white to black with a shade of gray in between. The white clams and the black clams each outnumber the gray clams ten to one. Which is the most probable conclusion for why this is?The population is experiencing disruptive selection, with the gray clams having no camouflage in their environment.The population is experiencing stabilizing selection, with the white and black clams each forming a normal distribution.The population is experiencing directional selection, with the extreme phenotypes moving in opposite directions.The population is experiencing stable selection, with the gray clams unable to compete with the white or black clams.77100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1<p>After many generations, an insect species evolved resistance to a particular pesicide. This occurred because spraying pesiticides</p>killed most of the insects in the populationcaused mutations in the insect species' gene poolcaused another insect species to go extinctselected for insects that were able to survive and reproduce84100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1When a species fails to produce any more descendants, it is said tobe divergent.have speciated.have become extinct.88100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1<p>In a population, natural selection acts on</p>heritable differencesgenetic mutationshomologous structuresanalogous structures89100cc_profilecc.multiple_choice.v0p1<p>An herbicide killed 99% of a weed population. Which of the following is the best biological explanaation for some weeds being able to survive?</p>some individuals were able to evolve before the sprayingGenetic variation in the population allowed some weds to surviveThe spray caused some individuals to mutate, and they wee able to survive and reproduceeach individual occupied a different ecological niche and so some were unaffected94100cc_profilecc.fib.v0p1Homologous structures are similar because they are inherited from a common _.ancestor100cc_profilecc.fib.v0p1Individuals do not _, but populations do.evolve100cc_profilecc.essay.v0p1qmd_computerscoredNoDefine artificial selection, and give one example.100cc_profilecc.essay.v0p1qmd_computerscoredNoFrom the point of view of natural selection, why do individuals tend to produce more offspring than an environment can support?100cc_profilecc.essay.v0p1qmd_computerscoredNoWhat does it mean to say that natural selection does not act directly on genes, but is limited to acting upon phenotypes?100cc_profilecc.essay.v0p1qmd_computerscoredNoA population of 100 mice have two fur colors, brown and white. The phenotypes and genotypes are as follows:<br>37 percent have brown fur and the genotype <i>BB.</i><br>31 percent have brown fur and the genotype <i>Bb.</i><br>32 percent have white fur and the genotype <i>bb.<br><br></i>Calculate the allele frequencies of <i>B</i> and <i>b.</i> You may use the Hardy-Weinberg equation or simple arithmetic to perform your calculations. <br>The Hardy-Weinberg equation is <i>p</i><sup>2</sup> + 2<i>pq </i>+ <i>q</i><sup>2</sup> = 1100cc_profilecc.essay.v0p1qmd_computerscoredNoSuppose that you are a zoologist studying birds on a group of islands. You have just discovered four species of birds that have never been seen before. Each species is on a separate island. The birds are identical to one another except for the shape of their beaks. How can you explain their similarities and differences?100