This textbook is designed for the study of general chemistry in the second semester of NCTU.
- In this chapter, you will learn how to predict the position of the balance and the yield of a product of a reaction under specific conditions, how to change a reaction's conditions to increase or reduce yield, and how to evaluate an equilibrium system's reaction to disturbances.
- By the end of this chapter, you will understand why different kinds of batteries are used in cars, flashlights, cameras, and portable computers; how rechargeable batteries operate; and why corrosion occurs and how to slow—if not prevent—it. You will also discover how metal objects can be plated with silver or chromium for protection; how silver polish removes tarnish; and how to calculate the amount of electricity needed to produce aluminum, chlorine, copper, and sodium on an industrial scale.
- Transition metals are defined as those elements that have (or readily form) partially filled d orbitals. These include the d-block (groups 3–11) and f-block element elements. The variety of properties exhibited by transition metals is due to their complex valence shells. Unlike most main group metals where one oxidation state is normally observed, the valence shell structure of transition metals means that they usually occur in several different stable oxidation states.
- Organic chemistry involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Organic compounds form the basis of all earthly life and constitute a significant part of human endeavors in chemistry.