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Chemistry LibreTexts


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  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    This laboratory manual is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License ("Public License") except where otherwise noted and referenced.

    The full text of the license is located here:

    Disclaimer: These experiments are intended to be used with experienced supervision in a laboratory classroom setting. Los Medanos College and the Contra Costa Community College District assumes no responsibility or liability from the use or misuse of these experimental procedures either in or out of the laboratory classroom.

    In other words: if you think it is a good idea to go in your back yard (or anywhere else) and mix some random chemicals, we inform you firmly that it is a bad idea. Do not sue us if or when you get hurt. We warned you.

    Several sources were used for the experiments in this laboratory manual:

    Permission was granted from the Laney College Department of Chemistry to adapt some of their experiments. Experiments 1, 12, 15, 16, 17, 21, 34 and Volume Measurements from the 30A manual; Experiments 3 and 4 from the 30B manual; and Experiment 17 from the 1A manual were adapted for use.

    Permission was granted from the Santa Monica College physical science department to adapt their experiments from their Chemistry 11 laboratory manuals. Experiments 1, 2, 5, 7, 12, 15, 17, and 18 were adapted.

    Permission was granted from Long Island University to use images in Experiment 2510-T.

    The Techniques section is modified from the LMC Chemistry 06/07 Laboratory Manual. Additional descriptions of techniques are available from

    The 2020-2021 LMC staff of student stockroom workers were of great assistance in testing out and improving these experiments.

    Los Medanos faculty and staff who assisted this effort include Melinda Capes, Dennis Gravert, Edward Haven, Nancy Peters, Girlie Sison and Paul West.

    Funding for this effort was provided by the following: “Expanding the LibreTexts Project into the Next-Generation Hub for Construction, Dissemination, and Usage of Open Educational Resource Textbooks” Grant 12701438 (19-0867)

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