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13.3: Table of Contents

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  • This Textmap is designed for the two-semester general chemistry course. For many students, this course provides the foundation to a career in chemistry, while for others, this may be their only college-level science course. As such, this textbook provides an important opportunity for students to learn the core concepts of chemistry and understand how those concepts apply to their lives and the world around them.
    • 1: Essential Ideas of Chemistry

      Most everything you do and encounter during your day involves chemistry. Making coffee, cooking eggs, and toasting bread involve chemistry. The products you use—like soap and shampoo, the fabrics you wear, the electronics that keep you connected to your world, the gasoline that propels your car—all of these and more involve chemical substances and processes. Whether you are aware or not, chemistry is part of your everyday world.
      • 1.1: Chemistry in Context
      • 1.2: Phases and Classification of Matter
      • 1.3: Physical and Chemical Properties
      • 1.4: Measurements
      • 1.5: Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
      • 1.6: Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
      • 1.E: Essential Ideas of Chemistry (Exercises)
    • 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

      This chapter will describe some of the fundamental chemical principles related to the composition of matter, including those central to the concept of molecular identity.
      • 2.0: Prelude to Atoms
      • 2.1: Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
      • 2.2: Evolution of Atomic Theory
      • 2.3: Atomic Structure and Symbolism
      • 2.4: Chemical Formulas
      • 2.5: The Periodic Table
      • 2.6: Molecular and Ionic Compounds
      • 2.7: Chemical Nomenclature
      • 2.E: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions (Exercises)
    • 3: Composition of Substances and Solutions

      Quantitative aspects of the composition of substances and mixtures are the subject of this chapter.
      • 3.1: Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
      • 3.2: Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
      • 3.3: Molarity
      • 3.4: Other Units for Solution Concentrations
      • 3.E: Composition of Substances and Solutions (Exercises)
    • 4: Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions

      This chapter will describe how to symbolize chemical reactions using chemical equations, how to classify some common chemical reactions by identifying patterns of reactivity, and how to determine the quantitative relations between the amounts of substances involved in chemical reactions—that is, the reaction stoichiometry.
      • 4.0: Prelude to Stoichiometry
      • 4.1: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
      • 4.2: Classifying Chemical Reactions
      • 4.3: Reaction Stoichiometry
      • 4.4: Reaction Yields
      • 4.5: Quantitative Chemical Analysis
      • 4.E: Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions (Exercises)
    • 5: Thermochemistry

      Useful forms of energy are also available from a variety of chemical reactions other than combustion. For example, the energy produced by the batteries in a cell phone, car, or flashlight results from chemical reactions. This chapter introduces many of the basic ideas necessary to explore the relationships between chemical changes and energy, with a focus on thermal energy.
      • 5.0: Prelude to Thermochemistry
      • 5.1: Energy Basics
      • 5.2: Calorimetry
      • 5.3: Enthalpy
      • 5.E: Thermochemistry (Exercises)
    • 6: Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties

      The study of chemistry must at some point extend to the molecular level, for the physical and chemical properties of a substance are ultimately explained in terms of the structure and bonding of molecules. This module introduces some basic facts and principles that are needed for a discussion of organic molecules.
      • 6.1: Electromagnetic Energy
      • 6.2: The Bohr Model
      • 6.3: Development of Quantum Theory
      • 6.4: Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
      • 6.5: Periodic Variations in Element Properties
      • 6.E: Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties (Exercises)
    • 7: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry

      A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei, or as the result of a dipole attraction. All bonds can be explained by quantum theory, but, in practice, simplification rules allow chemists to predict the strength, directionality, and polarity of bonds.
      • 7.0: Prelude to Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
      • 7.1: Ionic Bonding
      • 7.2: Covalent Bonding
      • 7.3: Lewis Symbols and Structures
      • 7.4: Formal Charges and Resonance
      • 7.5: Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
      • 7.6: Molecular Structure and Polarity
      • 7.E: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry (Exercises)
    • 8: Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding

      • 8.0: Prelude to Covalent Bonding
      • 8.1: Valence Bond Theory
      • 8.2: Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
      • 8.3: Multiple Bonds
      • 8.4: Molecular Orbital Theory
      • 8.E: Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding (Exercises)
    • 9: Gases

      In this chapter, we examine the relationships between gas temperature, pressure, amount, and volume. We will study a simple theoretical model and use it to analyze the experimental behavior of gases. The results of these analyses will show us the limitations of the theory and how to improve on it.
      • 9.1: Gas Pressure
      • 9.2: Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
      • 9.3: Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
      • 9.4: Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
      • 9.5: The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
      • 9.6: Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
      • 9.E: Gases (Exercises)
    • 10: Liquids and Solids

      The great distances between atoms and molecules in a gaseous phase, and the corresponding absence of any significant interactions between them, allows for simple descriptions of many physical properties that are the same for all gases, regardless of their chemical identities. As described in the final module of the chapter on gases, this situation changes at high pressures and low temperatures—conditions that permit the atoms and molecules to interact to a much greater extent.
      • 10.0: Prelude to Liquids and Solids
      • 10.1: Intermolecular Forces
      • 10.2: Properties of Liquids
      • 10.3: Phase Transitions
      • 10.4: Phase Diagrams
      • 10.5: The Solid State of Matter
      • 10.6: Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
      • 10.E: Liquids and Solids (Exercises)
    • 11: Solutions and Colloids

      In this chapter, we will consider the nature of solutions, and examine factors that determine whether a solution will form and what properties it may have. In addition, we will discuss colloids—systems that resemble solutions but consist of dispersions of particles somewhat larger than ordinary molecules or ions.
      • 11.0: Prelude to Solutions and Colloids
      • 11.1: The Dissolution Process
      • 11.2: Electrolytes
      • 11.3: Solubility
      • 11.4: Colligative Properties
      • 11.5: Colloids
      • 11.E: Solutions and Colloids (Exercises)
    • 12: Kinetics

      • 12.0: Prelude to Kinetics
      • 12.1: Chemical Reaction Rates
      • 12.2: Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
      • 12.3: Rate Laws
      • 12.4: Integrated Rate Laws
      • 12.5: Collision Theory
      • 12.6: Reaction Mechanisms
      • 12.7: Catalysis
      • 12.E: Kinetics (Exercises)
    • 13: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts

      In this chapter, you will learn how to predict the position of the balance and the yield of a product of a reaction under specific conditions, how to change a reaction's conditions to increase or reduce yield, and how to evaluate an equilibrium system's reaction to disturbances.
      • 13.0: Prelude to Equilibrium
      • 13.1: Chemical Equilibria
      • 13.2: Equilibrium Constants
      • 13.3: Shifting Equilibria - Le Chatelier’s Principle
      • 13.4: Equilibrium Calculations
      • 13.E: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts (Exercises)
    • 14: Acid-Base Equilibria

      This chapter will illustrate the chemistry of acid-base reactions and equilibria, and provide you with tools for quantifying the concentrations of acids and bases in solutions.
      • 14.1: Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
      • 14.2: pH and pOH
      • 14.3: Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
      • 14.4: Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions
      • 14.5: Polyprotic Acids
      • 14.6: Buffers
      • 14.7: Acid-Base Titrations
      • 14.E: Acid-Base Equilibria (Exercises)
    • 15: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes

      We previously learned about aqueous solutions and their importance, as well as about solubility rules. While this gives us a picture of solubility, that picture is not complete if we look at the rules alone. Solubility equilibrium, which we will explore in this chapter, is a more complex topic that allows us to determine the extent to which a slightly soluble ionic solid will dissolve, and the conditions under which precipitation.
      • 15.1: Precipitation and Dissolution
      • 15.2: Lewis Acids and Bases
      • 15.3: Coupled Equilibria
      • 15.E: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes (Exercises)
    • 16: Thermodynamics

      Among the many capabilities of chemistry is its ability to predict if a process will occur under specified conditions. Thermodynamics, the study of relationships between the energy and work associated with chemical and physical processes, provides this predictive ability. This chapter will introduce thermodynamic concepts that enable the prediction of any chemical or physical changes under a given set of conditions.
      • 16.1: Spontaneity
      • 16.2: Entropy
      • 16.3: The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
      • 16.4: Gibbs Energy
      • 16.E: Thermodynamics (Exercises)
    • 17: Electrochemistry

      Electrochemistry deals with chemical reactions that produce electricity and the changes associated with the passage of electrical current through matter. The reactions involve electron transfer, and so they are oxidation-reduction (or redox) reactions. Many metals may be purified or electroplated using electrochemical methods.
      • 17.1: Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
      • 17.2: Galvanic Cells
      • 17.3: Standard Reduction Potentials
      • 17.4: The Nernst Equation
      • 17.5: Batteries and Fuel Cells
      • 17.6: Corrosion
      • 17.7: Electrolysis
      • 17.E: Electrochemistry (Exercises)
    • 18: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals

      The development of the periodic table in the mid-1800s came from observations that there was a periodic relationship between the properties of the elements. Chemists, who have an understanding of the variations of these properties, have been able to use this knowledge to solve a wide variety of technical challenges. This chapter explores important properties of representative metals, metalloids, and nonmetals in the periodic table.
      • 18.1: Periodicity
      • 18.2: Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
      • 18.3: Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
      • 18.4: Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
      • 18.5: Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
      • 18.6: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
      • 18.7: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
      • 18.8: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
      • 18.9: Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
      • 18.10: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
      • 18.11: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
      • 18.12: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
      • 18.E: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals (Exercises)
    • 19: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

      Transition metals are defined as those elements that have (or readily form) partially filled d orbitals. These include the d-block (groups 3–11) and f-block element elements. The variety of properties exhibited by transition metals is due to their complex valence shells. Unlike most main group metals where one oxidation state is normally observed, transition metals usually occur in several different stable oxidation states.
      • 19.1: Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
      • 19.2: Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
      • 19.3: Optical and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
      • 19.E: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry (Exercises)
    • 20: Organic Chemistry

      Organic chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials.
      • 20.0: Prelude to Organic Chemistry
      • 20.1: Hydrocarbons
      • 20.2: Alcohols and Ethers
      • 20.3: Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
      • 20.4: Amines and Amides
      • 20.E: Organic Chemistry (Exercises)
    • 21: Nuclear Chemistry

      The chemical reactions that we have considered in previous chapters involve changes in the electronic structure of the species involved, that is, the arrangement of the electrons around atoms, ions, or molecules. Nuclear structure, the numbers of protons and neutrons within the nuclei of the atoms involved, remains unchanged during chemical reactions. This chapter will introduce the topic of nuclear chemistry, which began with the discovery of radioactivity.
      • 21.1: Nuclear Structure and Stability
      • 21.2: Nuclear Equations
      • 21.3: Radioactive Decay
      • 21.4: Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
      • 21.5: Uses of Radioisotopes
      • 21.6: Biological Effects of Radiation
      • 21.E: Nuclear Chemistry (Exercises)
    • Appendices

      • Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
      • Essential Mathematics
      • Formation Constants for Complex Ions
      • Fundamental Physical Constants
      • Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
      • Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
      • Solubility Products
      • Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
      • Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
      • The Periodic Table
      • Units and Conversion Factors
      • Water Properties
    • Back Matter

    • Front Matter

      • TitlePage
      • InfoPage
      • Table of Contents
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