This Textmap is designed for the two-semester general chemistry course. For many students, this course provides the foundation to a career in chemistry, while for others, this may be their only college-level science course. As such, this textbook provides an important opportunity for students to learn the core concepts of chemistry and understand how those concepts apply to their lives and the world around them.
1: Essential Ideas of ChemistryMost everything you do and encounter during your day involves chemistry. Making coffee, cooking eggs, and toasting bread involve chemistry. The products you use—like soap and shampoo, the fabrics you wear, the electronics that keep you connected to your world, the gasoline that propels your car—all of these and more involve chemical substances and processes. Whether you are aware or not, chemistry is part of your everyday world.
1.1: Chemistry in Context 1.2: Phases and Classification of Matter 1.3: Physical and Chemical Properties 1.4: Measurements 1.5: Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision 1.6: Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results 1.E: Essential Ideas of Chemistry (Exercises)
2: Atoms, Molecules, and IonsThis chapter will describe some of the fundamental chemical principles related to the composition of matter, including those central to the concept of molecular identity.
2.0: Prelude to Atoms 2.1: Early Ideas in Atomic Theory 2.2: Evolution of Atomic Theory 2.3: Atomic Structure and Symbolism 2.4: Chemical Formulas 2.5: The Periodic Table 2.6: Molecular and Ionic Compounds 2.7: Chemical Nomenclature 2.E: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions (Exercises)
3: Composition of Substances and SolutionsQuantitative aspects of the composition of substances and mixtures are the subject of this chapter.
3.1: Formula Mass and the Mole Concept 3.2: Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas 3.3: Molarity 3.4: Other Units for Solution Concentrations 3.E: Composition of Substances and Solutions (Exercises)
4: Stoichiometry of Chemical ReactionsThis chapter will describe how to symbolize chemical reactions using chemical equations, how to classify some common chemical reactions by identifying patterns of reactivity, and how to determine the quantitative relations between the amounts of substances involved in chemical reactions—that is, the reaction stoichiometry.
4.0: Prelude to Stoichiometry 4.1: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 4.2: Classifying Chemical Reactions 4.3: Reaction Stoichiometry 4.4: Reaction Yields 4.5: Quantitative Chemical Analysis 4.E: Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions (Exercises)
5: ThermochemistryUseful forms of energy are also available from a variety of chemical reactions other than combustion. For example, the energy produced by the batteries in a cell phone, car, or flashlight results from chemical reactions. This chapter introduces many of the basic ideas necessary to explore the relationships between chemical changes and energy, with a focus on thermal energy.
5.0: Prelude to Thermochemistry 5.1: Energy Basics 5.2: Calorimetry 5.3: Enthalpy 5.E: Thermochemistry (Exercises)
6: Electronic Structure and Periodic PropertiesThe study of chemistry must at some point extend to the molecular level, for the physical and chemical properties of a substance are ultimately explained in terms of the structure and bonding of molecules. This module introduces some basic facts and principles that are needed for a discussion of organic molecules.
6.1: Electromagnetic Energy 6.2: The Bohr Model 6.3: Development of Quantum Theory 6.4: Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations) 6.5: Periodic Variations in Element Properties 6.E: Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties (Exercises)
7: Chemical Bonding and Molecular GeometryA chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei, or as the result of a dipole attraction. All bonds can be explained by quantum theory, but, in practice, simplification rules allow chemists to predict the strength, directionality, and polarity of bonds.
7.0: Prelude to Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry 7.1: Ionic Bonding 7.2: Covalent Bonding 7.3: Lewis Symbols and Structures 7.4: Formal Charges and Resonance 7.5: Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds 7.6: Molecular Structure and Polarity 7.E: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry (Exercises)
8: Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
8.0: Prelude to Covalent Bonding 8.1: Valence Bond Theory 8.2: Hybrid Atomic Orbitals 8.3: Multiple Bonds 8.4: Molecular Orbital Theory 8.E: Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding (Exercises)
9: GasesIn this chapter, we examine the relationships between gas temperature, pressure, amount, and volume. We will study a simple theoretical model and use it to analyze the experimental behavior of gases. The results of these analyses will show us the limitations of the theory and how to improve on it.
9.1: Gas Pressure 9.2: Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law 9.3: Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions 9.4: Effusion and Diffusion of Gases 9.5: The Kinetic-Molecular Theory 9.6: Non-Ideal Gas Behavior 9.E: Gases (Exercises)
10: Liquids and SolidsThe great distances between atoms and molecules in a gaseous phase, and the corresponding absence of any significant interactions between them, allows for simple descriptions of many physical properties that are the same for all gases, regardless of their chemical identities. As described in the final module of the chapter on gases, this situation changes at high pressures and low temperatures—conditions that permit the atoms and molecules to interact to a much greater extent.
10.0: Prelude to Liquids and Solids 10.1: Intermolecular Forces 10.2: Properties of Liquids 10.3: Phase Transitions 10.4: Phase Diagrams 10.5: The Solid State of Matter 10.6: Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids 10.E: Liquids and Solids (Exercises)
11: Solutions and ColloidsIn this chapter, we will consider the nature of solutions, and examine factors that determine whether a solution will form and what properties it may have. In addition, we will discuss colloids—systems that resemble solutions but consist of dispersions of particles somewhat larger than ordinary molecules or ions.
11.0: Prelude to Solutions and Colloids 11.1: The Dissolution Process 11.2: Electrolytes 11.3: Solubility 11.4: Colligative Properties 11.5: Colloids 11.E: Solutions and Colloids (Exercises)
12.0: Prelude to Kinetics 12.1: Chemical Reaction Rates 12.2: Factors Affecting Reaction Rates 12.3: Rate Laws 12.4: Integrated Rate Laws 12.5: Collision Theory 12.6: Reaction Mechanisms 12.7: Catalysis 12.E: Kinetics (Exercises)
13: Fundamental Equilibrium ConceptsIn this chapter, you will learn how to predict the position of the balance and the yield of a product of a reaction under specific conditions, how to change a reaction's conditions to increase or reduce yield, and how to evaluate an equilibrium system's reaction to disturbances.
13.0: Prelude to Equilibrium 13.1: Chemical Equilibria 13.2: Equilibrium Constants 13.3: Shifting Equilibria - Le Chatelier’s Principle 13.4: Equilibrium Calculations 13.E: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts (Exercises)
14: Acid-Base EquilibriaThis chapter will illustrate the chemistry of acid-base reactions and equilibria, and provide you with tools for quantifying the concentrations of acids and bases in solutions.
14.1: Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 14.2: pH and pOH 14.3: Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases 14.4: Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions 14.5: Polyprotic Acids 14.6: Buffers 14.7: Acid-Base Titrations 14.E: Acid-Base Equilibria (Exercises)
15: Equilibria of Other Reaction ClassesWe previously learned about aqueous solutions and their importance, as well as about solubility rules. While this gives us a picture of solubility, that picture is not complete if we look at the rules alone. Solubility equilibrium, which we will explore in this chapter, is a more complex topic that allows us to determine the extent to which a slightly soluble ionic solid will dissolve, and the conditions under which precipitation.
15.1: Precipitation and Dissolution 15.2: Lewis Acids and Bases 15.3: Coupled Equilibria 15.E: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes (Exercises)
16: ThermodynamicsAmong the many capabilities of chemistry is its ability to predict if a process will occur under specified conditions. Thermodynamics, the study of relationships between the energy and work associated with chemical and physical processes, provides this predictive ability. This chapter will introduce thermodynamic concepts that enable the prediction of any chemical or physical changes under a given set of conditions.
16.1: Spontaneity 16.2: Entropy 16.3: The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics 16.4: Gibbs Energy 16.E: Thermodynamics (Exercises)
17: ElectrochemistryElectrochemistry deals with chemical reactions that produce electricity and the changes associated with the passage of electrical current through matter. The reactions involve electron transfer, and so they are oxidation-reduction (or redox) reactions. Many metals may be purified or electroplated using electrochemical methods.
17.1: Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 17.2: Galvanic Cells 17.3: Standard Reduction Potentials 17.4: The Nernst Equation 17.5: Batteries and Fuel Cells 17.6: Corrosion 17.7: Electrolysis 17.E: Electrochemistry (Exercises)
18: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and NonmetalsThe development of the periodic table in the mid-1800s came from observations that there was a periodic relationship between the properties of the elements. Chemists, who have an understanding of the variations of these properties, have been able to use this knowledge to solve a wide variety of technical challenges. This chapter explores important properties of representative metals, metalloids, and nonmetals in the periodic table.
18.1: Periodicity 18.2: Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals 18.3: Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids 18.4: Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals 18.5: Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen 18.6: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates 18.7: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen 18.8: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus 18.9: Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen 18.10: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur 18.11: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens 18.12: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases 18.E: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals (Exercises)
19: Transition Metals and Coordination ChemistryTransition metals are defined as those elements that have (or readily form) partially filled d orbitals. These include the d-block (groups 3–11) and f-block element elements. The variety of properties exhibited by transition metals is due to their complex valence shells. Unlike most main group metals where one oxidation state is normally observed, transition metals usually occur in several different stable oxidation states.
19.1: Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds 19.2: Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals 19.3: Optical and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds 19.E: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry (Exercises)
20: Organic ChemistryOrganic chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials.
20.0: Prelude to Organic Chemistry 20.1: Hydrocarbons 20.2: Alcohols and Ethers 20.3: Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters 20.4: Amines and Amides 20.E: Organic Chemistry (Exercises)
21: Nuclear ChemistryThe chemical reactions that we have considered in previous chapters involve changes in the electronic structure of the species involved, that is, the arrangement of the electrons around atoms, ions, or molecules. Nuclear structure, the numbers of protons and neutrons within the nuclei of the atoms involved, remains unchanged during chemical reactions. This chapter will introduce the topic of nuclear chemistry, which began with the discovery of radioactivity.
21.1: Nuclear Structure and Stability 21.2: Nuclear Equations 21.3: Radioactive Decay 21.4: Transmutation and Nuclear Energy 21.5: Uses of Radioisotopes 21.6: Biological Effects of Radiation 21.E: Nuclear Chemistry (Exercises)
Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases Essential Mathematics Formation Constants for Complex Ions Fundamental Physical Constants Ionization Constants of Weak Acids Ionization Constants of Weak Bases Solubility Products Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances The Periodic Table Units and Conversion Factors Water Properties
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