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Chemistry LibreTexts

Table of Contents

  • Page ID
    • 1: Kinetics

      • 1.1: Prelude to Kinetics
      • 1.2: Chemical Reaction Rates
      • 1.3: Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
      • 1.4: Rate Laws
      • 1.5: Integrated Rate Laws
      • 1.6: Collision Theory
      • 1.7: Reaction Mechanisms
      • 1.8: Catalysis
      • 1.9: Kinetics (Exercises)
    • 2: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts

      In this chapter, you will learn how to predict the position of the balance and the yield of a product of a reaction under specific conditions, how to change a reaction's conditions to increase or reduce yield, and how to evaluate an equilibrium system's reaction to disturbances.
      • 2.1: Prelude to Equilibrium
      • 2.2: Chemical Equilibria
      • 2.3: Equilibrium Constants
      • 2.4: Shifting Equilibria - Le Chatelier’s Principle
      • 2.5: Equilibrium Calculations
      • 2.6: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts (Exercises)
    • 3: Acid-Base Equilibria

      This chapter will illustrate the chemistry of acid-base reactions and equilibria, and provide you with tools for quantifying the concentrations of acids and bases in solutions.
      • 3.1: Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
      • 3.2: pH and pOH
      • 3.3: Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
      • 3.4: Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions
      • 3.5: Polyprotic Acids
      • 3.6: Buffers
      • 3.7: Acid-Base Titrations
      • 3.8: Acid-Base Equilibria (Exercises)
    • 4: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes

      We previously learned about aqueous solutions and their importance, as well as about solubility rules. While this gives us a picture of solubility, that picture is not complete if we look at the rules alone. Solubility equilibrium, which we will explore in this chapter, is a more complex topic that allows us to determine the extent to which a slightly soluble ionic solid will dissolve, and the conditions under which precipitation.
      • 4.1: Precipitation and Dissolution
      • 4.2: Lewis Acids and Bases
      • 4.3: Coupled Equilibria
      • 4.4: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes (Exercises)
    • 5: Thermodynamics

      Among the many capabilities of chemistry is its ability to predict if a process will occur under specified conditions. Thermodynamics, the study of relationships between the energy and work associated with chemical and physical processes, provides this predictive ability. This chapter will introduce thermodynamic concepts that enable the prediction of any chemical or physical changes under a given set of conditions.
      • 5.1: Spontaneity
      • 5.2: Entropy
      • 5.3: The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
      • 5.4: Gibbs Energy
      • 5.5: Thermodynamics (Exercises)
    • 6: Electrochemistry

      Electrochemistry deals with chemical reactions that produce electricity and the changes associated with the passage of electrical current through matter. The reactions involve electron transfer, and so they are oxidation-reduction (or redox) reactions. Many metals may be purified or electroplated using electrochemical methods.
      • 6.1: Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
      • 6.2: Galvanic Cells
      • 6.3: Standard Reduction Potentials
      • 6.4: The Nernst Equation
      • 6.5: Batteries and Fuel Cells
      • 6.6: Corrosion
      • 6.7: Electrolysis
      • 6.8: Electrochemistry (Exercises)
    • 7: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals

      The development of the periodic table in the mid-1800s came from observations that there was a periodic relationship between the properties of the elements. Chemists, who have an understanding of the variations of these properties, have been able to use this knowledge to solve a wide variety of technical challenges. This chapter explores important properties of representative metals, metalloids, and nonmetals in the periodic table.
      • 7.1: Periodicity
      • 7.2: Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
      • 7.3: Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
      • 7.4: Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
      • 7.5: Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
      • 7.6: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
      • 7.7: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
      • 7.8: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
      • 7.9: Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
      • 7.10: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
      • 7.11: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
      • 7.12: Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
      • 7.13: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals (Exercises)
    • 8: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

      Transition metals are defined as those elements that have (or readily form) partially filled d orbitals. These include the d-block (groups 3–11) and f-block element elements. The variety of properties exhibited by transition metals is due to their complex valence shells. Unlike most main group metals where one oxidation state is normally observed, transition metals usually occur in several different stable oxidation states.
      • 8.1: Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
      • 8.2: Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
      • 8.3: Optical and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
      • 8.4: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry (Exercises)
    • 9: Organic Chemistry

      Organic chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials.
      • 9.1: Prelude to Organic Chemistry
      • 9.2: Hydrocarbons
      • 9.3: Alcohols and Ethers
      • 9.4: Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
      • 9.5: Amines and Amides
      • 9.6: Organic Chemistry (Exercises)
    • 10: Nuclear Chemistry

      The chemical reactions that we have considered in previous chapters involve changes in the electronic structure of the species involved, that is, the arrangement of the electrons around atoms, ions, or molecules. Nuclear structure, the numbers of protons and neutrons within the nuclei of the atoms involved, remains unchanged during chemical reactions. This chapter will introduce the topic of nuclear chemistry, which began with the discovery of radioactivity.
      • 10.1: Nuclear Structure and Stability
      • 10.2: Nuclear Equations
      • 10.3: Radioactive Decay
      • 10.4: Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
      • 10.5: Uses of Radioisotopes
      • 10.6: Biological Effects of Radiation
      • 10.7: Nuclear Chemistry (Exercises)
    • 11: Appendices

      • 11.1: Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
      • 11.2: Essential Mathematics
      • 11.3: Formation Constants for Complex Ions
      • 11.4: Fundamental Physical Constants
      • 11.5: Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
      • 11.6: Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
      • 11.7: Solubility Products
      • 11.8: Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
      • 11.9: Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
      • 11.10: The Periodic Table
      • 11.11: Units and Conversion Factors
      • 11.12: Water Properties
    • 12: Back Matter

    • 13: Front Matter

      • 13.1: TitlePage
      • 13.2: InfoPage
      • 13.3: Table of Contents
    • Back Matter

      • Index
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