CHEM 360 deals with the chemistry of carbon compounds through a study of the characteristic reactions of the common functional groups. The chemistry of alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, carbohydrates, and amines are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of reaction mechanisms, in an attempt to show similarities between apparently unrelated reactions. The importance of stereochemistry is stressed throughout the course.
- In this unit, we examine the chemistry of the alcohol family of compounds. Alcohols can undergo a wide variety of reactions, and because of this reactivity and because they can be prepared in a number of different ways, alcohols occupy an important position in organic chemistry. The discussion begins with an outline of the nomenclature of alcohols and phenols. We review the physical properties of these compounds, and discuss methods used to obtain the lower members on an industrial scale.
- We shall begin in a very traditional manner, with a discussion of the nomenclature of ethers. We will then describe how ethers may be prepared in the laboratory, and discuss the relative inertness of these compounds. A discussion of the chemistry of cyclic ethers follows, with particular emphasis on the preparation and reactions of epoxides—cyclic ethers containing a three‑membered ring. We will then introduce crown ethers.
- Nucleophilic addition reactions were described in general terms in Unit 18. In Unit 19, we take a more detailed look at these reactions as we make a comprehensive study of the chemistry of aldehydes and ketones. Aldehydes and ketones are discussed together because their chemistry is very similar. However, as you work through the unit, be sure to look for specific instances where the chemistry of these two classes of compounds differs.
- Alpha-substitution reactions are the third major type of reaction that you will study in your investigation of the chemistry of carbonyl compounds. As you will see, these reactions proceed through the formation of the enol form of the carbonyl compound. After a brief review of keto-enol tautomerism, we begin our discussion of alpha-substitution reactions by looking at the methods used to introduce a halogen atom into a carbonyl-containing compound—reactions.
- Carbonyl condensation reactions take place between two carbonyl containing reactants, one of which must possess an alpha-hydrogen atom. The first step of the reaction involves the removal of an alpha-hydrogen atom by a base. In the second step, the enolate anion that results from this removal attacks the carbonyl-carbon of the second reacting molecule. In the final step , a proton is transferred to the tetrahedral intermediate formed in the second step, but may subsequently be dehydrated.
- Amines are the first nitrogen-containing compounds that we study in detail in this course.We begin the unit with an explanation of the differences in structure among primary, secondary and tertiary amines. We explain the nomenclature of aliphatic and anylamines, and examine the structure and bonding of these compounds, relating these features to their physical properties and basicity.
- Amino acids are important biochemicals, as they are the building blocks from which proteins and polypeptides are assembled.We begin this unit with an examination of some of the fundamental chemistry of amino acids: their structures, stereochemistry and synthesis. We then discuss the nature of peptides and of the peptide bond, and present the complex issue of determining the order in which the various amino acid residues occur in a given peptide.
- Lipids are naturally occurring organic compounds that can be extracted from cells and tissues using nonpolar solvents. Although many lipids have complex structures, their chemistry can often be understood quite readily by applying the basic concepts you have studied in previous units. We begin the unit with a study of fats and oils, and explain the different origins of these structurally similar substances.