These are the homework exercises to accompany the Textmap for McMurry's Organic Chemistry textbook.
Rank the following from least polar to most polar using knowledge of electronegativity
CH3CH2-Li CH3CH2-K CH3CH2-F CH3CH2-OH
(least polar) OH < F < Li < K (most polar)
The following molecule has no dipole moment in the molecule itself, explain.
Which of the following molecules has a net dipole?
Within reactions with carbonyls, such as a reduction reaction, the carbonyl is attacked from the carbon side and not the oxygen side. Using knowledge of electronegativity explain why this happens.
The hydroxyl groups are oriented opposite of one another and therefore the dipole moments would “cancel” one another out. Therefore having a zero net-dipole.
1, 3, and 4 have a net dipoles.
The oxygen is more electronegative than the carbon and therefore creates a dipole along the bond. This leads to having a partial positive charge on the carbon and the reduction can take place.
Give the formal charges for all non-hydrogen atoms in the following moelcules:
BH4−, H2O, CH3O−
BH4− (B = −1)
H2O (O = 0)
CH3O− (C = 0, O = −1)
Draw the resonance structures for the following molecule:
Are all the bond lengths the same in the carbonate ion, CO32-?
S2.5.1 Yes, the bond lengths in carbonate ion are all the same. Carbonate ion exists as the resonance hybrid of the three resonance forms below.
Is the following molecule a Brønsted acid or base?
It can be both, consider the following schemes:
In the following reactions give the resulting products and label the conjugate acid and bases.
Determine which of the one of the molecules is an acid or a base.
1 = Base
2 = Acid
3 = Acid
4 = Acid
For the following molecules state wither they are Lewis acid or base and wither or not they are a Brønsted acid or base.
Acetone is a Lewis base and a Brønsted base. Ammonium cation is both a Lewis acid and a weak Brønsted acid.