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|(Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, !Jeans ...")
|(Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity")
|The infamous double helix
|Death, Deaths, Multiple Deaths, Dying, !Deathstar
An almost living being, especially an animal.
|This is a death star
|The scientific study of genes and heredity, of how particular qualities or traits are transmitted from parents to offspring.
|A research process in which scientists remove the genetic instructions for entire metabolic pathways from certain microorganisms, alter the instructions, and then put them back.
|Abbreviation for the four steps in a medicine's journey through the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
|A molecule that triggers a cellular response by interacting with a receptor.
|A medicine's ability to relieve pain, or a drug that alleviates pain; the term comes form the Greek word algos, which means pain.
|A molecule that prevents the action of other molecules, often by competing for a cellular receptor; opposite of agonist.
|A substance that can kill or inhibit the growth of certain microorganisms.
|A protein of the immune system, produced in response to an antigen (a foreign, often disease-causing, substance).
|A drug's ability to reduce inflammation, which can cause soreness and swelling.
|Fever-reducing; the term comes from the Greek word pyresis, which means fire.
|A molecule that synthesizes regulatory molecules such a prostaglandins; is found in fatty animal tissue and food such as egg yolk and live.
|One-celled organism without a nucleus that reproduces by cell division; can infect humans, plants, or animals.
|A lipid unique to animal cells that is used in the construction of cell membranes and as a building block for some hormones.
|A structure in the cell nucleus that contains hereditary material (genes); humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each body cell, one of each pair from the mother and the other from the father.
|A scientific study to determine the effects of potential medicines in people; usually conducted in three phases (I, II, III,), to determine whether the drug is safe, effective, and better than current therapies, respectively.
|An enzyme, also known as COX, that makes prostaglandins from a molecule called arachidonic acid; the molecular target to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
|DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid
|A double-stranded, helical molecule that encodes genetic information.
|The amount of medicine to be taken at one time.
|A medical treatment to stimulate a patient's immune system to attack and destroy disease-causing cells.
|The body's characteristic reaction to infection or injury, resulting in redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
|The ability of a drug or other chemical to be taken up by the body and made available in the tissue where it is needed.
|A field of research that relies on computers to store and analyze large amounts of biological data.
|The industrial use of living organisms or biological methods derived through basic research.
|The conversion fo a substance from one form to another by the actions of organisms or enzymes.
|A blockade consisting of cells and small blood vessels that limits the movement of substances from the bloodstream into the brain.
|Any substance that, when exposed to living tissue, may cause cancer.
|The basic subunit of any living organism; the simplest unit that can exist as an independent living system.
|Central nervous system
|The brain and spinal cord.
|Physical force holding atoms together to form a molecule.
|A research approach resembling genetics in which scientists custom-produce synthetic, protein-binding small molecules to explore biology.
|A graph drawn to show the relationship between the dose of a drug or other chemical and the effect it produces.
|A molecule (usually a protein) that speeds up, or catalyzes, a chemical reaction without being permanently altered or consumed.
|Essential fatty acid
|A long, fat-containing molecule involved in human body processes that is synthesized by plants but not by the human body and is, therefore, a dietary requirement.
|The breakdown of orally administered drugs in the liver and intestines.
|One of a group of switch proteins involved in a signaling system that passes incoming messages across cell membranes and within cells.
|A unit of heredity; a segment of a DNA molecule containing the code for making a protein or, sometimes, an RNA molecule.
|The study of all of an organism's genetic material.
|A messenger molecule that helps coordinate the actions of various tissues; made in one part of the body and transported, via the bloodstream, to tissues and organs elsewhere in the body.
|A bacterium, animal, or plant used by scientists to study basic research questions; common model organisms include yeast, flies, worms, frogs, and fish.
|An antibody that recognizes only one type of antigen; sometimes used as immunotherapy to treat diseases such as cancer.
|NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
|Any of a class of drugs that reduces pain, fever, or inflammation by interfering with the synthesis of prostaglandins.
|The agreement of a person (or his or her legally authorized representative) to serve as a research subject, with full knowledge of all anticipated risks and benefits of the experiment.
|An enzyme that adds phosphate groups to proteins.
|A chemical messenger that allows neurons (nerve cells) to communicate with each other and with other cells.
|A fatty, waxy, or oily molecule that will not dissolve in water; it contains hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen.
|The membrane-bound structure within a cell that contains most of the cell's genetic material.
|Oily, microscopic capsules designed to package and deliver biological cargo, such as drugs, to cells in the body.
|A specialized, membrane-bound structure that has a defined cellular function; for example, the nucleus.
|A thin covering surrounding a cell and separating it from the environment; consists of a double layer of molecules called phospholipids and has proteins embedded in it.
|A small protein fragment.
|The study of how drugs act at target sites of action in the body.
|All enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a living organism that builds and breaks down organic molecules, producing or consuming energy in the process.
|The study of how people's genes affect their response to medicines.
|A chemical intermediate in metabolic reactions; a product of metabolism.
|The study of how the body absorbs, distributes, breaks down, and eliminates drugs.
|A scientist focusing on pharmacology.
|Recombinant DNA technology
|Modern techniques in molecular biology to manipulate an organism's genes by introducing, eliminating, or changing genes.
|The study of how drugs interact with living systems.
|RNA (ribonucleic acid), RNA, Ribonucleic Acid
|A molecule that serves as an intermediate step in the synthesis of proteins from instructions coded in DNA; some RNA molecules also perform regulatory functions in cells and viruses.
|An area in the health sciences that deals with the preparation, dispensing, and appropriate use of medicines.
|A clinical condition in which infectious agents (bacteria, fungi) or products of infection (bacterial toxins) enter the blood and profoundly affect body systems.
|The study of how living organisms function.
|The effect of a drug, other than the desired effect, sometimes in an organ other than the target organ.
|Any of a class of hormone-like, fat-soluble, regulatory molecules made from fatty acids such as arachidonic acid; prostaglandins participate in diverse body functions, and their production is blocked by NSAIDs.
|The process by which a hormone or growth factor outside the cell transmits a message into the cell.
|A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) in a specific order and a folded shape determined by the sequence of nucleotides in the gene encoding the protein; essential for all life processes.
|Site of action
|The place in the body where a drug exerts its effects.
|The systematic, large-scale study of all proteins in an organism.
|A type of molecule that has a multiple ring structure, with the rings sharing molecules of carbon.
|A specialized molecule that receives information from the environment and conveys it to other parts of the cell; the information is transmitted by a specific chemical that must fit the receptor, like a key in a lock.
|A field of study dedicated to determining the three-dimensional structures of biological molecules to better understand the function of these molecules.
|A drug used to treat a disease or condition; contrast with drug of abuse.
|The study of how poisonous substances interact with living organisms.
|An infectious agent composed of a protein coat around a DNA or RNA core; to reproduce, viruses depend on living cells.
|A technique used to determine the detailed, three-dimensional structure of molecules based on the scattering of X rays through a crystal of the molecule.